The Centrarchidae or Sunfish family inhabits cold to temperate waters in the United States.
aureus, E. gibbosus, Perca gibbosa, Pomotis gibbosus, P. vulgaris, Sparus aureus
PD:An oval-shaped with with a laterally compressed body.
The caudal peduncle is long and the
dorsal fin is made up of 10-12 spiny rays.
The color varies depending on the age of the fish.
Younger fish have brown base coloration
with overlaying pearly-green iridescence markings.
The body is marked with numerous orange to red spots.
The gill cover is marked with a characteristic
rear flap which is black with a red end.
The lower parts are orange while the fins are yellow to brown.
colors darken with age.
SIZE: To 9" (23 cm)
HAB: North America; Great Lakes to Texas and east.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: A tank measuring 36" (91 cm) with a volume from 35-45 gallons (132-170 L) is sufficient
for young fish.
Adult fish require a tank measuring at least 48" (122 cm) with a capacity from 50-70 gallons
Plant the tank along the edges and back and use a fine gravel substrate.
Leave open swimming areas and use good
WATER: pH 6.9-7.6 (7.1), 6-15 dH (8), 43-72°F (6-22°C)
SB: A peaceful species outside of spawning times when it become territorial.
family is formed.
SC: Other sunfish, minnows,
FOOD: Live; worms, insects, insect larvae, brine shrimp, small fish; pellets; tablets;
SEX: Males are generally more colorful, while females have fuller bellies.
differences are not foolproof.
B: Use water with a temperature from 64-68°F (18-20°C).
A large spawning pit is constructed
by the male using his tail.
Courtship involves the pair meeting belly to belly in the spawning pit.
Up to 1000 eggs are laid which are aggressively
defended by the male.
Remove the female.
The male fans the eggs until they hatch 4-6 days later.
fry are fanned into plants where they hang for 3-4 days before becoming free-swimming.
Start feeding with
Easiest to breed when the water temperature varies according to the season.
example, in the winter the water should be considerably cooler than in the summer.
R: This species has been introduced into many parts of Europe.
The Pumpkinseed can be kept in an outdoor
pond, although the water temperature should not drop below 43°F (6°C).
This peaceful, cold water species is a fine addition to some outdoor ponds.