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CHARACINS



CURIMATIDAE FAMILY
The Curimatidae Family includes three sub-families, Anostominae, Chilodontinae, and Prochilodontinae,and is scattered throughout South America.
 
ANOSTOMINAE SUB-FAMILY
The sub-family Anostominae (Headstanders) includes, among others, the genera Abramites, Anostomus and Leporinus.
SIZE : The Headstanders includes medium to large fish, ranging in size from 4" (10cm) to 20" (50 cm).
WATER : These fish can tolerate a pH from 6-7.5, but prefer slightly acidic water.  Theylike soft water ranging from 2-15 dH, and require a temperature of 73-82°F (23-28°C).
S: The fish of this family usually swim in the lower and mid-water levels.
TANK : The tank size ranges depending on the size of the fish.  For most, it should be at least 40"(101 cm) long or 45-55 gallons (190-209 l). Provide many hiding places with rocks, wood, and stones.  Usea powerful filter that creates a strong current, as many of these fish inhabit rapid areas of small streams.  A tight-fittingcover is needed, for these fish are fine jumpers. The lighting should be strong enough to promote the growth of algae.  Thefish of this family prefer a substrate of sand, although will accept fine gravel as an alternative.  Withmost species live plants cannot be used as they will likely be consumed.
FOOD : Algae; vegetable; spinach, lettuce; fruits; vegetable flake food; plants; live; worms,crustaceans, aquatic insects, insect larvae.
B : Very Headstanders have been bred.
BP : Very difficult.
SB : The Anostominae Family is a peaceful family. These fish can be combined in a communitytank with other large fish. Most fish can be kept in a large school (six or more) or singly without any problems.
SC : Headstanders are generally decent community fish.  Depending on the species, possible tankmates may include such South American catfish as Armored Catfish (Callichthyidae Family), Pimelodids, Loricarids,Doradids, and even the African Synodontis . Many Headstanders can be combined with Central and South America cichlids, as well as othercharacins such as tetras, hatchetfish, and piranha (and allies).  Some Headstanders can be combined with odditiessuch as Knifefish, Arawanas, and Leaf Fish. Headstanders can also be combined with such Asian families as gouramis,barbs, and Loaches. A few species can even be combined with livebearers in an aquarium with a neutral to slightlyalkaline pH.
R : The fish of the Anostominae family have a tendency to swim in a head facing-downward position. 
DC : The fish of the Anostominae family are fairly hardy when kept in slightly acidic waterand fed a diet that includes vegetable foods.
 
Headstander, High-backed Headstander
[
Abramites hypselonotus
SYN : Leporinushypselonotus  
PD : An elongated, tall fish which has an arched back when adult. This fish has large eyesand a small head with a pointed snout. The body coloration is beige to light brown and marked with seven to ninedark stripes. The forehead is yellow and so is the adipose fin. The dorsal and pelvic fins are striped and theother fins are transparent.
SIZE : To 5.5" (14 cm)
SS : None
HAB : South America; widespread throughout the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers.
S: bottom, middle
TANK : 32" (80 cm) or 30 gallons (114 L).  As for other species of the Anostominaefamily.
WATER : pH 6-7.5 (6.8), 2-18 dH (8), 72-82°F (22-28°C)
SB : The young are peaceful and can be combined in nearly any community tank.  Adultsdo not usually tolerate others of their species.
SC : See general Headstander description.
FOOD : Algae; vegetable; spinach, lettuce; fruits; vegetable flake food; plants; live; worms,crustaceans, aquatic insects, insect larvae.
SEX: Unknown
B : Unknown
BP : 10. Breeding is not difficult.
R : This species swims in head pointing downwards position, grazing algae off rocks andsearching for fallen food. This fish may jump when frightened.
DC : 4. A hardy community fish.
 
Striped Anostomus, Striped Headstander

[
Anostomus anostomus  
SYN : Anostomusgronovii, A. salmoneus, Leporinus anostomus, Salmo anostomus
PD : An elongated fish with lateral compression.  Color varies from brown to black withthree yellow horizontal stripes. The dorsal fin is usually red as is the area on the base of the tail.  Other fins are transparent.  Thisfish has a pointed head and an upturned mouth for grazing algae.  In reflected light the scale can have a slightreddish iridescence.
SIZE : To 8" (20 cm)
SS : Ternetz's Anostomus ( Anostomus ternetzi ), Striped Leporinus ( Leporinus striatus )
HAB : Along rocky banks with lots of algae of fast moving rivers. South America; the Orinocoand Amazon Rivers in Guyana, Columbia, Venezuela, Peru, Brazil
S: bottom, middle
TANK : 40" (101 cm) or 45-55 gallons (190-209 l).  The tank should have a dark substrateof fine gravel or sand. Use a tight-fitting cover as this fish is a good jumper.  The filter should create a strong currentto make the fish more comfortable. Use strong lighting to promote algae growth.  This fish can be kept in a well-plantedtank as long as it is fed large amounts of "green food" and there is algae to be grazed upon.  Providehiding places among rock structures, caves, and driftwood.
WATER : pH 5.8-7.5 (6.5), 2-18 dH (8), 72-84°F (22-29°C)
SB : Should either be kept singly or in groups of six or more.  If kept in smaller groups, fish mayfight. If kept singly, it does well in a community tank with medium to large fish.  It may nip at long-flowing finned fishat night. Combine with calm fish that are not aggressive towards getting food, because sometimes this speciesmay not compete for food. This species may be territorial at times.
SC : Catfish; Armored Catfish, Pimelodids, Loricarids, Doradids, Synodontis ; Central and South America cichlids;characins; tetras, piranha (and allies), hatchetfish; Knifefish; Arawana; gouramis; barbs; and Loaches.
FOOD : Algae; vegetable; spinach, lettuce; fruits; vegetable flake food; plants; live; worms,crustaceans, aquatic insects, insect larvae.
SEX: Mature females are larger and plumper.
B : This fish is commonly bred in fish hatcheries throughout South America and Asia.  Hasalso reportedly been bred in aquaria although few details are available.  The diet of the fish apparently playsa very important role in initiating the spawn.
BP : 10. Spawning is very difficult in aquaria.
R : This species swims in head pointing downwards position, grazing algae off rocks andsearching for fallen food. 
DC : 5. A hardy fish that requires a tank set-up that includes rock structures.  This fish must be kept with medium tolarge sized fish.
 
Lisa, Black-lined Anostomus
[
Anostomus taeniatus  
SYN : Laemolytataeniata  
PD : An elongated fish with lateral compression. Color varies from beige to light brownwith black stripes that extends from the mouth to the tail. The fins are transparent. This fish has a pointed headand an upturned mouth for grazing algae. The iris is bright red. The belly is beige to white. The lips are red. A yellow line is located above the black stripe.
SIZE : To 8" (20 cm)
SS : None
HAB : Still or slow-flowing water with floating plants.  South America; in the Rio Negro, RioMoiocu, Rio Tapajos. 
S: bottom, middle
TANK : 40" (122 cm) or 40 gallons (150 l).  Tank set-up should be as for othersof the Anostominae family. See genus description. Use a filter that does cause much disturbance of the water.  Peatfiltration is recommended.  
WATER : pH 5.0-6.5 (6.0), 0-8 dH (4), 75-82°F (24-28°C)
SB : Should either be kept singly or in groups of six or more.  If kept in smaller groups, fish mayfight. If kept singly, it does well in a community tank with medium to large fish.
SC : South American cichlids that can tolerate acidic water, see A. anostomus
FOOD : Algae; vegetable; spinach, lettuce; fruits; vegetable flake food; plants; live; worms,crustaceans, aquatic insects, insect larvae.
SEX: Females are said to be deeper-bodied than males.
B : Unknown
BP : 10. Breeding has not been successful in captivity.
R : This species swims in head pointing downwards position, grazing algae off rocks andsearching for fallen food.  
DC : 6. A hardy fish when kept in well-maintained water.  The water should be peat-filtered andfrequent partial water changes should be made.
 
Black-banded Leporinus, Banded Leporinus
[
Leporinus fasciatus
SYN : Salmofasciatus, Chalceus fasciatus, Leporinus novem fasciatus  
PD : An elongated, tall fish that has large eyes and a small head. The body coloration islemon yellow to beige and marked with 9-10 black bars. The first extends over the forehead and through the eye,while the last extends at the base of the tail. The tail is deeply forked and transparent, as are the other fins. Males often have an orange to red throat.
SIZE : To 12" (30 cm)
SS : Many-banded Leporinus ( Leporinus affinis ), Eight-banded Leporinus ( L. octofasciatus ), and the various sub-species.
HAB : Widespread throughout South America; from the Orinoco River to the Rio de la Plata.
S: bottom, middle
TANK : 40" (122 cm) or 40 gallons (150 l).  Provide many hiding places with wood,rocks, and stones. Use a powerful filter that creates a strong current.  A tight-fitting cover is essential forthese fish jump. The lighting should be strong to promote the growth of algae.  This fish prefers a sand bottom, butwill tolerate a fine gravel substrate instead. Live plants cannot be used, as they will be eaten.
WATER : pH 5.5-7.5 (6.8), 2-20 dH (8), 72-82°F (22-28°C)
SB : A peaceful fish recommended for a community tank.  Occasionally it may nibble at the finsof its own species.
SC : Catfish; Armored Catfish, Pimelodids, Loricarids, Doradids, Synodontis ; Central and South America cichlids;characins; tetras, piranha (and allies); Knifefish; Arawana; gouramis; barbs; and Loaches.
FOOD : Algae; vegetable; spinach, lettuce; fruits; vegetable flake food; plants; live; worms,crustaceans, aquatic insects, insect larvae.
SEX: Adult females are plumper
B : Unsuccessful.
BP : 10. No reports of successful spawning in captivity have been reported.
R : This species swims in head pointing downwards position, grazing algae off rocks andsearching for fallen food. This fish may jump when frightened. Will eat plants. There are several different colorvariations. There are five different sub-species; L. f. affinis, L. f. altipinnis, L. f. fasciatus, L. f. tigrinus, and L. f. holostictus.
DC : 5. A fairly hardy fish that will eat plants.  It reaches a large size.

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