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CICHLIDS

By Rhett Butler

Pearly Compressiceps, Pearly Lamprologus [Pictures]
Altolamprologus calvus


SYN: Lamprologus calvus
PD: An elongated and laterally compressed cichlid. The back is arched and the dorsal fin is elongated. The large mouth faces the surface of the water. The body color is generally off-white to light brown, and the fins are beige. The body is marked with ten to 12 transverse bars. The body is spotted with small whitish markings.
A dark black marking extends from the upper lip, through the eye, and back down to the bottom of the gill cover. The anal and dorsal fin have a darker edging.
SIZE: To 5.5" (14 cm)
SS: Compressiceps ( A. compressiceps)
HAB: Eastern Africa; found near Sumbe National Park in Zambia in Lake Tanganyika. This species, like A. compressiceps , inhabits crevices and caves in rocky zones.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: 40" (101 cm) or 45-55 gallons (170-209 L) is adequate, although larger tanks are recommended. The tank should be heavily planted with plants that can tolerate the harder, more alkaline water. Use a coral sand substrate. Rock structures should be the focus of the tank, and caves and crevices should be included. Leave large open swimming areas. Provide a tight-fitting cover as this species is a jumper.
WATER: 7.2-8.8 (8.0), 8-18 dH (12), 75-81F (24-27C)
SB: A timid, but territorial fish. Try introducing some lively fish to help bring this species out of hiding. When A. calvus sees other fish swimming about, they will think that it is safe to come out. Do not combine with small, slender fishes under 2.5" (6.4 cm) in length as the will likely be consumed. Can be combined with other Lake Tanganyika cichlids.
SC: Lake Tanganyika Cichlids, Synodontis, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Afromastacembelus
FOOD: Live; fish, crustaceans, freshwater shrimp, insect larvae, aquatic insects.
SEX: Males may be larger with slightly more elongated fins.
B: Use water with a pH from 7.0-7.5, a water hardness from 10-14 dH, and a temperature from 77-82F (25-28C). Keep two or three males and three to five females in the tank. Spawning takes place in a rocky crevice. Up to 200 yellowish-green eggs are laid in this crevice. The eggs are carefully guarded the female. The young hatch out in two days in water with a temperature of 79-81F (26-27C). The fry are free-swimming after 8-10 more days. At that time they can be fed on Artemia nauplii and Cyclops nauplii. The young are slow-growing and frequent partial water changes are required. The fry are sensitive to new water so make very small water changes so as not to affect them.
BP: 9. Breeding is very difficult.
R: A. calvus is very sensitive to changes in water conditions and new water. Take care when making water changes to take the correct precautions.
DC: 6. A sensitive fish whose care is difficult. Live foods must be included in the diet, as few individuals will accept dry foods.

Compressiceps, Compressed Cichlid [Pictures]
Altolamprologus compressiceps
SYN: Lamprologus compressiceps
PD: A high-backed fish with strong lateral compression. The mouth is very large and appears to be hinged. The coloration varies greatly as multiple geographical color morphs are known. The most common variation beige body to light brown body color with about ten vertical stripes. These stripes may be obvious or barely visible. The first one runs from the forehead, though the back part of the eye, and down to the lower part of the gill cover. The last is usually located on the base of the caudal fin. Depending on the morph small copper-colored spots may or may not cover the rear part of the body. The fins are usually gold and the eye is dark. Often a short stripe from the eye the upper lip is present.
SIZE: To 6" (15 cm)
SS: Pearly Compressiceps ( A. calvus). These two species can be distinguished by A. compressiceps's greater arched back and shorter body. The spot markings and eye stripes are more distinct on A. calvus .
HAB: Eastern Africa; found in crevices of rocky areas in Lake Tanganyika
S: bottom, middle
TANK: 48" (122 cm) or 55 gallons (209 L). The tank should have large open swimming areas. Use rock structures to create hiding caves and crevices.
WATER: pH 7.2-9.0 (8.0), 7-18 dH (12), 75-82F (24-28C).
SB: A timid and peaceful fish that will lose some of its shyness when combined with lively Lake Tanganyika Cichlids. Somewhat territorial towards fish that enter its territory. Do not combine with small fish, under 3" (8 cm), as they will likely be mistaken for food and consumed. This species will not harm plants.
SC: Lake Tanganyika cichlids, Synodontis, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Afromastacembelus
FOOD: Live; small fish, earthworms, large aquatic insects, Mysis shrimp, and other large crustaceans; possibly chopped meat.
SEX: Males may be slightly larger.
B: Use water with a pH from 7.2-7.5, a water hardness from 8-12 dH, and a temperature from 77-82F (25-28C). The breeding tank should include a number of cave structures. As many as 300 eggs are laid in a cave. The female guards the eggs while the male defends the territory. The young are difficult to rear and need a regimes of small water changes biweekly to prosper. Start feeding with Artemia. The young are slow-growing.
BP: 9. Breeding is very difficult and only accomplished rarely.
R: Nearly all the fish available to the hobby are wild-caught. This helps explain the high price that often accompanies this fish. The body shape is a result of a feeding specialization for feeding on small fish, aquatic insects, and crustaceans that inhabit small crevices in rocky areas. Make frequent water changes.
DC: 6. A difficult fish to care for as its diet must include live foods and it is highly sensitive to water pollutants.

Frontosa [Pictures]
Cyphotilapia frontosa
SYN: Paratilapia frontosa, Pelmatochromis frontosus
PD: A high-back cichlid that develops a large hump on the forehead. The fins are elongated and come to a point at their ends. The body coloration is bright white with five or six, depending on the morph, broad black bands. The width of these bands depends on the individual, and varies from fish to fish. The fins are white to violet-blue.
SIZE: Males to 14" (35 cm), females to 10" (25 cm)
SS: None
HAB: Eastern Africa; found at depths from 30-160 feet (9-50 m), Lake Tanganyika
S: bottom, middle
TANK: A tank of 48" (122 cm) or 55 gallons (210 L) is sufficient for young fish that are under 6-8" (15-20 cm) in length. Larger fish should be moved to a larger tank of at least 60" (152 cm) or 90-110 gallons (342-378 L). Use a coral sand substrate and create caves and crevices with large rock structures. Plants can be used. A powerful filter should be used, although the current created must be diffused to create little or no movement.
WATER: pH 7.5-9.0 (8.2), 8-22 dH (12), 77-81F (25-27C)
A peaceful, but territorial fish. The Frontosa is a semi-nocturnal feeder that stalks small, resting fish. Combine with other large pelagic (open water) Lake Tanganyika cichlids. One male should be kept with several females. Does best in schools. Colby D. writes, "Tropheus are not good tankmates for C. frontosa. Tropheus stress the more laid back frontosa."
SC: Lake Tanganyika cichlids, Synodontis, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Afromastacembelus
FOOD: Feeds mostly on crustaceans and fish in nature. Will also accept insect larvae, aquatic insects, chopped meat, and fresh fish.
SEX: Adult males reach a greater size and have a larger cranial hump on the forehead.
B: Use alkaline water with a pH from 8.2-8.5, a water hardness from 10-15 dH, and a water temperature from 79-82F (26-28C). Use a large tank with an abundance of retreats for the female. Combine at least three females with a male. Up to 50 eggs are deposited in a cave, where they are fertilized. After fertilization the eggs are taken in the mother's mouth where they are incubated for about four to five weeks. When the fry first emerge, they measure from 0.5 to 0.6" (1.3 to 1.5 cm) long. The fry are guarded by the female for up to two weeks further, with the young being taken into her mouth at times of danger. The young can be fed Artemia and Daphnia . The young need frequent partial water changes to prosper, but are sensitive to new water. Young fish may swim in the upper tank levels.
BP: 8. Breeding is difficult.
R: Fish are sexually mature at 2 years, although they are rarely ready to spawn at this time. This Lake Tanganyika cichlid needs frequent partial water changes-recommended to occur weekly. The Frontosa is sensitive to water pollutants and chemicals. A popular delicacy in Zaire.
DC: 7. A delicate fish that develops quite an interesting color pattern. It diet must include live foods.

Black-finned Slender Cichlid [Pictures]
Cyprichromis leptosoma
SYN: Limnochromis leptosoma, Paratilapia leptosoma
PD: An slender, elongated fish. The head is muddy-yellow to bright yellow. This yellow color quickly becomes a deep violet blue to indigo blue. The anal and dorsal fins can be deep violet blue, while the pelvic fins is usually white with the lower part being bright yellow. The caudal fin is yellow or indigo blue depending on the morph.
SIZE: To 5.5" (14 cm)
SS: Other Cyprichromis species.
HAB: Eastern Africa, an open water swimmer usually found above a rocky biotope in the southern part of Lake Malawi
S: middle, top
TANK: 40" (101 cm) or 45-55 gallons (170-209 L) is sufficient for a small number of 4" (10 cm) fish. The fish of the genus Cyprichromis like a great deal of open swimming area, so a tank of at least 56" (142 cm) or 75-100 gallons (285-378 L). Cover the tank as this fish will jump, especially during courtship.
WATER: pH 7.5-9.0 (8.0), 10-20 dH (15), 75-81F (24-27C).
SB: An active schooling fish that swims in the upper strata. Peaceful, this fish can be kept with many other Tanganyika cichlids. A large school of six to ten fish is a fine set-up. In a school, there should be more females than males.
SC: Lake Tanganyika cichlids, Synodontis, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Afromastacembelus
FOOD: Live; flying insects, insect larvae, aquatic insects, crustaceans; flakes; pellets. Be sure to give this fish a balanced diet including nutritious live foods.
SEX: Males are considerably more colorful.
B: Courtship takes place just below the surface. The fish are open water spawners. As each egg is dropped, the female gives chase and takes it into her mouth. The eggs are incubated for a period of three weeks. Their progress can often be observed through the female's transparent throat sac. The young leave the mother's mouth and head to the surface where they can be fed on Artemia, Cyclops nauplii, Daphnia, and crushed flake foods. The mother does not participate in broods care after the young are released.
BP: 7. Breeding is fairly difficult.
R: A lack of nutritious foods and variety in their diet can lead to disease and blindness. Make frequent partial water changes.
DC: 5. A peaceful fish that is sensitive to water pollutants.

Striped Clown Goby, Striped Goby Cichlid, Tanganyika Clown [Pictures]
Eretmodus cyanostictus
SYN: None
PD: A fish with a elongated body and a steep-sloping forehead. The inferior mouth is overshot. This arrangement makes the Striped Goby Cichlid look like it has a large nose. The eyes are located high-up on the head which is beige to light brown. This fish likes to rest on its pelvic fins. The body coloring is gray to light brown to even black. Six to seven yellow to white transverse stripes can be found on the body. Often a large number of small, iridescent blue spots also cover the body. The fins are gray.
SIZE: To 3.3" (8.5 cm)
SS: Tanganicodus irsacae
HAB: Eastern Africa; found on the pebbly bottoms of Lake Tanganyika shore areas.
S: bottom
TANK: 36" (91 cm) or 35 gallons (132 L). The substrate should be fine gravel and sand. Use rock structures in the background that include caves and crevices. Hiding places are important. Provide good aeration and filtration.
WATER: pH 7.5-9.0 (8.2), 12-22 dH (18), 75-81F (24-27C)
SB: This fish is territorial towards it own species when not paired up. Once a pair forms, the fish are non-aggressive towards each other. The Striped Goby cichlid can be kept in a community tank with fish of the upper swimming levels. Keep this fish singly, or in pairs.
SC: Lake Tanganyika cichlids, Synodontis, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Afromastacembelus , Rainbowfish.
FOOD: Algae; nutritious live foods; black mosquito larvae, crustaceans; tablets.
SEX: Very difficult to distinguish with young fish. The male has egg-spots on his anal fin, has a longer pelvic fin, and reaches a larger size.
B: Use water with a pH of 8.8-9.0, with a hardness from 14-20 dH, and a hardness from 79-82F (26-28C). As many as 25 eggs are laid on a rock. These are fertilized by the male and then taken into the mouth of the female's mouth. This species forms strong pairs and both parents take turns mouth brooding the eggs. The fry are carried in their mouths for 21 days, when they are released. The fry remain hidden most of the time. Feed the young in the evening with Artemia and dry foods that reach the bottom. The slow-growing fry are difficult to raise.
BP: 9. Breeding is very difficult.
R: These bi-parental mouthbrooders form long-term bonds, a practice that is unusual for mouthbrooders. Needs weekly water changes to prosper. This fish swims by "hoping" along the bottom.
DC: 6. A delicate, but amusing species that does well in a Lake Tanganyika community tank.

Dickfeld's Juli, Dickfeldi, Blue Julie, Brown Julie [Pictures]
Julidochromis dickfeldi
SYN: None
PD: Very similar in body shape to J. ornatus. The body is light brown to yellow in color with three lateral stripes. The uppermost stripe runs along the ridge of the back to the base of the caudal fin. The lowest stripe runs from the snout, through the lower part of the iris of the eye, to the caudal fin. The dorsal fin is dark gray to black with a series of small whitish-yellow spots. This fin also has a white to violet edge. The anal and caudal fins have the same coloring and pattern. The pelvic fins are violet. Sometimes the belly is white.
SIZE: 4" (10 cm)
SS: Two-stripe Chalinochromis ( Chalinochromis bifrenatus), some variations of J. ornatus .
HAB: Eastern Africa; found at depths of 6-20 feet (2-6 m) on the Zambian shore of Lake Tanganyika. These fish are found in rocky areas.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: 32" (80 cm) or 30 gallons (114 L). See recommendations for J. ornatus.
WATER: pH 7.5-9.0 (8.0), 10-20 dH (15), 73-81F (23-27C)
SB: Each fish sets up a large territory to defend against others of its own species. In a tank too small, the weaker individual will likely be killed. Best kept in compatible pairs. A retreat for each fish is important.
SC: Julidochromis, Neolamprologus, Synodontis, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Afromastacembelus, adults can be combined with Altolamprologus.
FOOD: Live; Tubifex , insect larvae, aquatic insects, crustaceans; large flakes; pellets.
SEX: Females are larger when mature.
B: See "Breeding of Cavity Brooders" in the introduction of Lake Tanganyika cichlids for information regarding obtaining a compatible pair. Keep only the compatible pair in a tank containing caves and other rock structures. Use water with a pH from 8.5-9.2, a water hardness from 8-12 dH, and a water temperature from 79-82F (26-28C). Usually about 40 eggs will be laid on the ceiling of a chosen cave. The eggs will be aggressively guarded by the parents. After hatching, two to three days later, the fry adhere themselves to the sides and ceiling of the cave. After four to six days, the fry emerge and can be fed on Artemia and crushed dry foods.
BP: 6. Spawning is fairly easy after a compatible pair is found.
R: The most recent of Julidochromis species to be introduced to the hobby.
DC: 5. A fine candidate for a community tank with other Lake Tanganyika Cichlids. Live foods should be included in this fish's diet.

Checkerboard Julie, Marlier's Julie [Pictures]
Julidochromis marlieri
SYN: None
PD: A fish similar in body shape to J. ornatus, although adults develop a hump on their forehead, and the lips are of their mouth are considerably larger. The caudal fin is fan-shaped. The background color is generally beige to a dull yellow-gold, with three to four brown-black lateral stripes. Crossing these stripes are five to eight faint, brown transverse bars, that together form a "Checkerboard" pattern. All these stripes and bars vary in intensity and size depending on the individual. The fins have a brown-black background and are spotted with small, yellow dots. The caudal fin includes a white line that follows the edge of this fin.
SIZE: To 6" (15 cm) in nature, although in captivity, they rarely exceed 5" (13 cm).
SS: A commonly available morph of J. regani is very similar, also Kendall's Lamprologus (Neolamprologus kendalli)
HAB: Eastern Africa; found along the southwestern rocky shores of Lake Tanganyika.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: 32" (80 cm) or 30 gallons (114 L). Retreats for each fish are especially important. Otherwise follow the guidelines for J. ornatus.
WATER: pH 7.5-9.0 (8.2), 8-20 dH (16), 75-82 F (24-28 C).
SB: A fish territorial towards others of its own species. Compatible pairs are hard to come by as they often will not be able to find a mate. Like other Julidochromis, J. marlieri can be combined with other robust Lake Tanganyika cichlids and catfish. Once a pair forms, it is usually unstable. The bond can easily be broken by a sudden change in the water conditions or a tank rearrangement.
SC: Lake Tanganyika cichlids, Synodontis, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Afromastacembelus , Rainbowfish.
FOOD: Live; crustaceans, bloodworms, other insect larvae, aquatic insects, Tubifex; finely chopped meat; flakes; pellets; spinach.
SEX: Males are smaller and when mature its genital papilla comes to a point and is aimed toward the tail. With the female, the genital papilla is rounded and points toward the head.
B: J. marlieri can be bred in a 24" (60 cm) or 15 gallons (56 L) tank. Spawning is very similar to that of J. ornatus. Usually 70-100 eggs, although broods exceeding 300 have been reported, are laid. Start feeding with Artemia and crushed dry foods.
BP: 6. Breeding is fairly easy once a compatible pair is found.
R: Will pair and hybridize with J. regani. This species has also been crossed with J. ornatus to produce sterile offspring.
DC: 6. More aggressive than J. ornatus.


Golden Julie, Ornate Julie, Yellow Julie
[Pictures]
Julidochromis ornatus
SYN: None
PD: An elongated cichlid with three characteristic brown-black longitudinal lines. The uppermost runs through the base of the dorsal fin, while the lowest extends from the snout, through the lower part of the eye, and back to the base of the caudal fin. The body is whitish yellow to a deep gold color. The fins are yellow and the anal, caudal, and dorsal fins have a dark outer edge. The pelvic fin may a white marking on its end, and the caudal fin is fan-shaped.
SIZE: To 3.2" (8 cm)
SS: Chalinochromis brichardi, this species resembles a young Melanochromis auratus.
HAB: Eastern Africa; found at depths of 6-15 feet (1.8 to 4.6 meters) in rocky zones on the northwestern shore of Lake Tanganyika.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: 24" (60 cm) or 15 gallons (56 L). The tank should have a rocky set-up including caves and crevices. Use a fine gravel or preferably, a coral sand substrate. Cover the tank well, as frightened fish may be inclined to leap. A few hardy plants can be used. The rearrangement of the tank can lead to the break-up of pair bonds.
WATER: pH 7.5-9.2 (8.2), 10-22 dH (14), 72-77F (22-25C)
SB: A territorial fish that is intolerant of its own species. A male will defend a territory established around a set of stones and a cave. He will not allow other J. ornatus in, except in cases where a bond has formed, his mate. In conflicts, the weaker fish may be killed. Monogamous bonds are formed and the young are cared for in a nuclear family arrangement.
SC: Lake Tanganyika cichlids (including other Julidochromis, Neolamprologus, Cyprichromis), Synodontis, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Afromastacembelus
FOOD: Live; crustaceans, bloodworms, other insect larvae, aquatic insects, Tubifex; finely chopped meat; flakes; pellets; spinach.
SEX: Males are smaller and more slender when mature.
B: To achieve success in spawning Julidochromis species, one must first obtain a compatible pair. For details please see the "Breeding of Cavity Brooders" in the introduction of Lake Tanganyika Cichlids. A small, 24" (60 cm) or 15 gallons (56 L) tank can be used. It should be arranged with caves and other rock structures. The water should be alkaline with a pH from 8.2-9.0, have a water hardness from 12-20 dH, and a temperature from 75-81F (24-27C). Keep a single pair in the breeding tank. The female deposits up to 100, although more often 10-40, eggs on the ceiling of a chosen cave. There the eggs are fertilized by the male. Often these proceedings can go unnoticed by the aquariast as they usually take place deep in the cave. The fry are very small, usually about 0.2" (0.5 cm) in length. They adhere to the ceiling or sides of the cave for 5-6 days. When the young are free-swimming they remain in the parent's territory under their indirect care. Start feeding with Artemia nauplii, Cyclops nauplii, and later with crushed dry foods. The pair will spawn continuously and receive aide in caring for the eggs from the offspring of prior spawnings.
BP: 5. Once a compatible pair is found, spawning becomes easy in their own separate tank. Over the course of a year, the pair may become very prolific with their continuous spawnings.
R: J. ornatus, like other Julidochromis species, is sensitive to sudden changes in water conditions. Thus, small water changes made weekly are recommended.
DC: 5. A sensitive fish, aggressive towards others of its own species. Live foods should be included in its diet.

Regan's Julie, Striped Julie [Pictures]
Julidochromis regani
SYN: None
PD: Has a more elongated body than J. ornatus. The body color is pale yellow to golden yellow. The pattern depends on the geographical region from which the fish originated. One common pattern variant is known as the "Zambian" morph. Four slender, lateral stripes that are brown-black in color runs the length of the body. These stripes alternate with the yellow body color. This pattern continues on the dorsal fin. The tail has circular patterns alternating between the yellow and brown-black markings colors. Another popular morph is the type from the northern part of the lake from near Bujumbura, Burundi. This variation has only three lateral bands, but these are very broad. Often it appears that the fish has a black base color with fine yellow lines. The fins retain the same coloration. One other morph is one with small black stripes. These are much thinner than those found on the first mentioned variant.
SIZE: To 12" (30 cm) in nature, although rarely larger than 5" (13 cm) in captivity.
SS: J. marlieri
HAB: Eastern Africa; found near the rocky shores of Lake Tanganyika.
S: All
TANK: 32" (80 cm) or 30 gallons (114 L) is recommended for fish to the length of 4" (10 cm). Fish larger than this size, should be moved to at least a 40" (101 cm) or 45-55 gallons (170-209 l) tank. Arrange the tank as one for J. ornatus.
WATER: 8.0-9.2 (8.2), 8-20 dH (15), 72-77F (22-25C).
SB: Do not keep with small, easy to swallow fish. This species is aggressive towards its own species. Become aggressive towards all fish when preparing to spawn.
SC: Lake Tanganyika cichlids, Synodontis, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Afromastacembelus , Rainbowfish.
FOOD: Live; crustaceans, bloodworms, other insect larvae, aquatic insects, Tubifex; finely chopped meat; flakes; pellets; spinach.
SEX: Females are larger and have a rounded genital papilla. The male's is pointed and more elongated.
B: Use water with a pH from 8.5-9.2, a hardness from 8-15 dH, and a temperature from 77-81F (25-27C). This fish can be bred in a 32" (80 cm) or 30 gallons (114 L) tank containing a great amount of rock-work. As many as 300 eggs are laid on the ceiling of a chosen cave. The fry, after hatching 2-4 days later, adhere to the sides and ceiling of the caves. The pair continues their care for the young, which can be fed on Artemia and dry foods.
BP: 5. Once a compatible pair is found, spawning becomes easy in their own separate tank.
R: Sometimes the female will take over the male's defense responsibilities.
DC: 5. More peaceful than J. ornatus. Their diet should include live foods.

Masked Julie, Black-and-White Julie [Pictures]
Julidochromis transcriptus
SYN: None
PD: A fish with a body shape similar to that of J. ornatus. The body coloring is yellow-white to golden yellow. Three brown-black lateral stripes run the course of the body. The uppermost runs through the bottom part of the anal fin, while the lower most extends from the snout, through the eye, and to the caudal fin. Often these stripes are broken or dashed. Six to eight transverse, brown-black stripes extend down from the back to the lower lateral stripe. These stripes are usually incomplete and broken, and often missing. The anal, caudal, and dorsal fins have a black and white edge. The pelvic fins are yellow. Several color and pattern variations are known.
SIZE: To 2.8" (7 cm)
SS: Some pattern variations of J. marlieri are similar.
HAB: Eastern Africa; found near on the northwestern coast (Tanzania and Burundi) of Lake Tanganyika.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: 24" (60 cm) or 15 gallons (56 L). Follow the recommendations for J. ornatus in setting up the tank.
WATER: pH 7.5-9.0 (8.2), 8-20 dH (15 cm), 72-77F (22-25C)
SB: J. transcriptus's behavior is similar to that of J. ornatus .
SC: See J. ornatus.
FOOD: Algae; live; crustaceans, bloodworms, other insect larvae, aquatic insects, Tubifex; finely chopped meat; flakes; pellets; spinach.
SEX: The female is larger and plumper. The male's genital papilla is pointed.
B: As for other Julidochromis species. Only 30-40 eggs are laid.
BP: 6. Breeding is more difficult to initiate than other Julidochromis.
R: The smallest member of the genus Julidochromis.
DC: 5. Care is rather easy for this cichlid.

Zebra Cichlid [Pictures]
Lobochilotes labiatus
SYN: Tilapia labiata
PD: An elongated, laterally compressed cichlid. The lips of adult fish are large and well-developed. The body color is usually greenish-white to greenish-silver-brown. About 12 transverse stripes run the length of the body. These stripes vary in intensity depending on the fish, and are usually dark gray in color. The fins are transparent with a smoky gray tint.
SIZE: To 16" (40 cm) in nature, although not usually larger then 11" (28 cm) in aquaria.
SS: None
HAB: Eastern Africa; found at depth from 125 to 200 feet (38-61 m) in rocky zones, Lake Tanganyika
S: bottom, middle
TANK: Smaller individuals can be kept in a tank measuring 48" (122 cm) with a volume of 55 gallons (209 L). Adults need a 60" (152 cm) tank with a volume of 90-110 gallons (342-416 L). The tank must have large open areas for free-swimming. Use a back-drop of large rock structures, including caves and tunnels. The substrate should be coral sand.
WATER: pH 7.5-8.8 (8.0), 8-22 dH (18), 70-75F (21-24C) is more natural, although the Zebra Cichlid will tolerate a temperature from 70-82F (21-28C) in aquaria.
SB: A highly aggressive, predatory fish that will eat fish under the size of 3.5" (9 cm) when full-grown. The Zebra Cichlid is territorial to others of its own and other species.
SC: Altolamprologus, Afromastacembelus, Lamprichthys, Synodontis, Cyphotilapia, and large Neolamprologus
FOOD: Live; fish, earthworms, aquatic insects, snails, Tubifex, insect larvae; chopped meat; mollusks; pellets; tablets; large flakes; vegetables; spinach, peas, lettuce.
SEX: The male's anal fin has egg-spots and may have lighter stripes.
B: Use a large breeding tank with the following water propertieS: a pH from 8.0-8.5, a water hardness from 8-14 dH, and a temperature from 75-79F (24-26C). Keep one male with several females. As many as 400 eggs are laid and taken into the mouth of the female. They are fertilized via the dummy-egg method. The eggs are incubated for a period of 25-30 days. The fry can be fed on Artemia, small Daphnia, and crushed dry foods.
BP: 9. Breeding, until recently, had not been accomplished in aquaria.
R: The large lips of L. labiatus serve an important role in finding food in the depths of Lake Tanganyika. The fish are able to sense food with them. A close relative to the Haplochromines of Lake Malawi.
DC: 6. A hardy, but highly aggressive cichlid that can only be combined with other large, robust Lake Tanganyika cichlids.

Lyretail Cichlid, Fairy Cichlid, Brichardi [Pictures]
Neolamprologus brichardi
SYN: Lamprologus brichardi, Lamprologus savoryi elongatus.
PD: An elongated fish with a characteristic "lyretail." The tips of the caudal fin are exceptionally long. The body color is a creamy-white to beige with tiny yellow splotches on the rear part of the body. The eye is bright blue and a dark bar runs from the eye, back to the gill cover. A gold spot is located just above this marking. The fins have blue-white edges.
SIZE: To 4" (10 cm)
SS: Savoryi (N. savoryi), Daffodil Brichardi ( Neolamprologus sp. "daffodil")
HAB: Eastern Africa; rocky shorelines of Lake Tanganyika.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: 30" (75 cm) tank with a volume of 20-25 gallons (75-98 L). Use a rocky set-up with caves, crevices, and tunnels. A retreat for each is important. Use a coral sand substrate. Leave open swimming areas.
WATER: pH 7.5-9 (8.0), 8-22 dH (16), 72-77F (22-25C).
SB: A peaceful fish, that outside of spawning times, likes to form schools. Provide retreats so that alienated fish can find shelter. Pairing occurs during the spawning season. Forms a nuclear family.
SC: Julidochromis, Neolamprologus, Cyprichromis, Synodontis, Lamprologus, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Rainbowfish.
FOOD: Live; crustaceans, insect larvae, aquatic insects, Tubifex; flakes; pellets.
SEX: Difficult to distinguish. The dorsal and caudal tips are longer on the male.
B: A small, 24" (61 cm) tank with a volume of 15 gallons (56 L) breeding tank can be used. Place a pair in the tank which should also include a number of caves and crevices. Use water with the properties as mentioned above. The temperature should be warmer, 77-84F (25-29C). Up to 200 eggs are laid deep inside a cleaned cave, often out of view for the aquariast. The parents receive aide in caring for the young from the siblings of prior spawnings. Start feeding with Artemia and fine-grade dry foods. The fry are slow-growing
BP: 6. Breeding is moderately difficult.
R: Make frequent partial water changes.
DC: 4. A peaceful, little cichlid that is excellent for a Neolamprologus or sand cichlid community tank.

Daffodil Brichardi [Pictures]
Neolamprologus pulcher
SYN: Lamprologus sp. "daffodil", Neolamprologus sp. "daffodil"
PD: An elongated fish with a characteristic "lyretail." The tips of the caudal fin are exceptionally long. The body color is a creamy-white to yellow. Faint yellow, dotted lines runs the length of the body. The fins have violet-blue tips. The eye develops a bright blue iris when good water maintenance is provided. At the base of the pectoral fin is a yellow splotch. The eye has a bright yellow circle around it and an iridescent, violet crescent is located just below that. The gill behind the eye and its markings is a short, dark transverse marking, followed by an iridescent violet line, and followed by another dark marking. One the second dark marking is a small bright blue spot. Just beyond these markings is a light blue areas that fades as it nears the middle part of the body. The dorsal fin may have a yellow edge.
SIZE: To 4" (10 cm)
SS: Brichardi (N. brichardi)
HAB: Eastern Africa; planted areas of Lake Tanganyika.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: 30" (75 cm) tank with a volume of 20-25 gallons (75-98 L). This species differs from N. brichardi by living in planted areas. Thus, the tank should be heavily planted with robust plants that can tolerate harder water. The lighting should be dimmed by a cover of floating plants. The substrate should be fine gravel with coral sand. Rock structures, including caves, should be constructed in the back of the tank. Leave some open swimming areas.
WATER: pH 7.2-8.5 (7.7), 8-25 dH (12), 75-81F (24-27C).
SB: A timid, peaceful fish that can be combined with other Lake Tanganyika species. Follow the guidelines for N. brichardi .
SC: See N. brichardi.
FOOD: Live; crustaceans, insect larvae, aquatic insects; flakes; pellets.
SEX: The males are smaller and more colorful.
B: Use a species tank with coarse gravel. The tank should be set-up as described in the "Tank" set-up. Use water with a pH from 7.5-8.0, a water hardness from 10-15 dH, and a temperature from 79-84 F (26-29 C). As many as 150 eggs are laid. Follow suggestions for N. brichardi.
BP: 6. Breeding is moderately difficult.
R: This fish was thught to be a color morph or sub-species of N. brichardi, though now it is considered a distinct species.
DC: 5. This shy fish's diet should include live foods.

Lemon Cichlid [Pictures]
Neolamprologus leleupi
SYN: Lamprologus leleupi
PD: An elongated cichlid with a characteristic bright yellow color and a set of large lips. The caudal fin is fan-shaped. The lips are a dark yellow, and above the upper lip is a fine green line. This line extends along the lip to just below the eye.
SIZE: To 4" (10 cm)
SS: N. longior
HAB: Eastern Africa; rocky parts of Lake Tanganyika.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: 30" (76 cm) tank with a volume of 20-25 gallons (75-98 L). Construct rock formations having caves and tunnels. Leave open swimming areas and use hardy plants for decorations. Use a fine gravel or preferably, coral sand substrate.
WATER: 7.5-9.0 (8.0), 8-20 dH (15), 75-81F (24-27C)
SB: A peaceful fish that can be combined with other Lake Tanganyika Cichlids. Males may become aggressive during the spawning season towards unreceptive or immature females. Pairs are formed only during the spawning season.
SC: Julidochromis, Neolamprologus, Cyprichromis, Synodontis, Lamprologus, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Rainbowfish.
FOOD: Live; crustaceans, insect larvae, aquatic insects; large flakes; pellets. This fish must be fed a varied diet to bring out its beautiful colors.
SEX: Difficult to distinguish between the sexes; older males often develop a hump on their forehead.
B: Use a breeding tank with a single pair. Be sure that the pair is compatible and provide caves and crevices. Use water with a pH from 7.5-8.2, 8-14 dH, and a temperature to 86F (30C). As many as 150 eggs are laid on the ceiling of a previously cleaned cave. The eggs are carefully guarded by the female, while the male watches over the territory. The fry hatch after 3-4 days and feed off their egg sacs for another three days. The young are moved to a pit inside the cave. After five to six more days, the fry are free-swimming and can be fed on Artemia nauplii, Cyclops nauplii, and crushed dry foods. The fry are very sensitive to the build-up of toxic compounds, and are susceptible to bacteria diseases.
BP: 7. Breeding is difficult.
R: Three sub-species have been described: N. leleupi leleupi, N. leleupi longior, and N. leleupi melas . The Lemon Cichlid needs frequent partial water changes in order to prosper. This cichlid reaches sexual maturity in about a year and a half.
DC: 6. A delicate, but stunning fish whose diet must include live foods.

Elongated Lemon Cichlid [Pictures]
Neolamprologus longior
SYN: Lamprologus longior
PD: N. longior is more elongated than N. leleupi. The coloring has more orange. Curving under the eye is a violet marking. Around the lips is a dark yellow areas.
SIZE: To 4" (10 cm)
SS: Neolamprologus leleupi, N. leleupi longior.
HAB: Eastern Africa; eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika, from Kabogo Point to Kibwe Bay. Like N. leleupi, this species inhabits rocky, shore areas.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: 30" (76 cm) tank with a volume of 20-25 gallons (75-98 L). As for N. leleupi.
WATER: 7.5-9.0 (8.0), 8-20 dH (15), 75-81F (24-27C)
SB: Combine with other peaceful cichlids in a Lake Tanganyika community tank. Males may brawl with each other over territory. Males are aggressive towards unreceptive or immature females. This fish forms pairs and a nuclear only during the spawning season.
SC: Julidochromis, Neolamprologus, Cyprichromis, Synodontis, Lamprologus, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Rainbowfish.
FOOD: Live; crustaceans, insect larvae, aquatic insects; large flakes; pellets. This fish must be fed a varied diet to bring out its beautiful colors.
SEX: Difficult to distinguish. Males have slightly more elongated fins.
B: Cave brooder who lays up to 200 eggs. Follow suggestions for N. leleupi.
BP: 7. Breeding the elongated Lemon Cichlid is difficult.
R: This species can be distinguished from the sub-species, N. leleupi longior by its longer body and elongated caudal peduncle.
DC: 6. A sensitive fish that must be fed live foods.

Ocellated Shell-dweller [Pictures]
Lamprologus ocellatus
SYN: Julidochromis ocellatus
PD: An elongated fish with a large mouth. The coloration is light brown to brown. A faint white stripe extends from the gill cover back to the caudal peduncle. Under this stripes is another faint stripe that is brown in color. Below this, down to the belly, a violet iridescent area is present. The eyes are large and located far up on the head. The lower half of the head is white. On the gill cover is a large, black spot. The fins are usually gray in color with the anal and caudal fins having small, pearl-colored spots. These fins also have dark edges. The dorsal fin has yellow edges (male) or white edges (female).
SIZE: Males to 2.4" (6 cm), females to 1.4" (3.5 cm)
SS: N. brevis
HAB: Eastern Africa; widespread throughout Lake Tanganyika. L. ocellatus lives in snail ( Neothauma) shells that are scattered about the muddy and sandy substrate. This fish lives at a depth from 13-100 feet (4-30 m).
S: bottom
TANK: A tank measuring 20" (50 cm) with a volume of 10 gallons (38 L) is sufficient. Use a sand substrate with a scattering of large, land snail shells. It is very important to provide at least one shell for each fish. The back of the tank should be arranged with rock structures for the other types of fish in the tank. Plant the tank with a few, robust plants.
WATER: pH 7.5-9.0 (8.0), 8-22 dH (14), 73-81F (23-27C)
SB: A highly territorial fish that defends its snail shell against all other fish regardless of their size. A fine fish for a Lake Tanganyika community tank.
SC: Julidochromis, Neolamprologus, Tropheus, Cyprichromis, Synodontis, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Afromastacembelus, Rainbowfish.
FOOD: Live; snails, crustaceans, Tubifex, aquatic insects, insect larvae; small tablets.
SEX: Males are larger with a yellow edge on the dorsal fin.
B: See "Cavity Brooder" in the introduction of Lake Tanganyika Cichlids. The spawning occurs in the female's snail shell. The female is approached by the male and given a nudge on the side of her belly. She goes in the shell to lay 20-35 eggs. The male follows and fertilizes the eggs. He departs immediately after the spawning. The eggs hatch in 24-26 hours and the fry are free-swimming 5-7 days later. The female may not tolerate the young, so they are best removed and given their own tank or snail shells. The females intolerance of the fry does not always occur, sometimes she cares for the fry for up to two weeks. Start feeding with Artemia nauplii and crushed dry foods.
BP: 6. Breeding is moderately difficult. In a large tank with several fish and many snail shells, the chances of having a male and female are greater.
R: Escargot shells are a happily accepted replacement for the Neothauma shell that are found in Lake Malawi. There is a gold morph.
DC: 4. A hardy, little snail shell-dweller.

Tetracanthus, Pearl-lined Lamprologus [Pictures]
Neolamprologus tetracanthus
SYN: Lamprologus brevianalis, L. tetracanthus
PD: An elongated fish with a slender caudal peduncle. The body color is light brown to beige. The body is marked with five or six dotted lines. These are a pearl-white color and runs from the gill cover, back to through the caudal fin. The other fins are also marked with these spots. The dorsal and caudal fins have a pearl-white edging. The pelvic and anal fins have a darker edging. Four broad, barely visible, darker transverse bands are located on the body.
SIZE: To 8" (20 cm)
SS: None
HAB: Eastern Africa; inhabits the transitional regions between rocky and sandy areas-Lake Tanganyika.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: A 36" (91 cm) tank with a volume of 35 gallons (132 L) can be used. It should be arranged with a rocky set-up having caves and crevices. The substrate should be coral sand. Leave open swimming areas.
WATER: pH 7.5-8.8 (8.0), 8-20 dH (14), 77-82F (25-28C)
SB: A peaceful fish that is territorial towards others of its own species. Do not combine with small fish (under 2.5" or 6.4 cm) as they may be eaten. Pairs form monogamous bonds and nuclear families. Can be combined with other Lake Tanganyika cichlids of a similar size.
SC: Julidochromis, Neolamprologus, Cyprichromis, Synodontis, Lamprologus, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Rainbowfish.
FOOD: Live; snails are a favorite, mollusks, small fish, aquatic insects, crustaceans, insect larvae; mussels; chopped meat; pellets.
SEX: The male reaches a larger size, and develops a cranial hump.
B: Use a water with a temperature from 79-84F (26-29C), a pH from 7.7-8.2, and a water hardness from 12-15 dH. A breeding tank containing a single pair and a number of caves should do. As many as 150 eggs are laid on the ceiling of a previously cleaned cave. The eggs are carefully guarded by the female, while the male watches over the territory. The fry hatch after 3-4 days and feed off their egg sacs for another three days. The young are moved to a previously dug pit inside the cave. After five to six more days, the fry are free-swimming and can be fed on Artemia nauplii, Cyclops nauplii, and crushed dry foods. The fry are very sensitive to chemicals, disease, and changes in water chemistry.
BP: 7. The Tetracanthus is a difficult fish to breed.
R: The Tetracanthus is sensitive to the build-up of toxic compounds. Make frequent water changes. A commonly captured cichlid in Lake Tanganyika.
DC: 5. A sensitive fish that requires a diet including live foods.

Five-bar Cichlid, Tretocephalus [Pictures]
Neolamprologus tretocephalus
SYN: Lamprologus tretocephalus
PD: An elongated cichlid with fan-shaped caudal fin. The background coloring is white to off-white and the body is marked with five distinct transverse bars. The bars are black in color and broad. The first one runs through over the gill cover. The second, third, and forth run from the belly to the lower part of the dorsal fin. The final bar is located right at the end of the caudal peduncle. A partial bar runs from the lower part of the eye, through the eye, and to the forehead. The pelvic and anal fins are violet-white while the caudal and dorsal are violet white tips. The caudal and dorsal fins are black in color.
SIZE: To 6" (15 cm)
SS: Resembles young Cyphotilapia frontosa, which differs by its one additional stripe. STYLE="mso-bidi-font-style : normal ; mso-spacerun : yes"> P. straeleni and STYLE="mso-bidi-font-style : normal ; mso-spacerun : yes"> N. sexfasciatus have shorter fins and one additional stripe.
HAB: Eastern Africa; rocky shore areas of Lake Tanganyika.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: A 36" (91 cm) tank with a capacity of 35 gallons (132 L) is sufficient for small fish under 4" (10 cm) in length. Adult fish need a 48 (122 cm) tank with a volume of 55 gallons (209 L). The tank should be arranged with a number of rock structures including caves, tunnels, and over-hangs. Use a coral sand substrate and leave plenty of open swimming areas.
WATER: pH 7.5-8.2 (7.9), 8-18 dH (12), 75-81F (24-27C)
SB: A territorial fish that will establish large territories. Combine with other robust Tanganyika cichlids and catfish. Pairs form monogamous bonds and nuclear families during the spawning season.
SC: Julidochromis, Neolamprologus, Cyprichromis, Synodontis, Lamprologus, Aulonocara, Lamprichthys, Rainbowfish.
FOOD: Live; insect larvae, aquatic insects, crustaceans; pellets; flakes; vegetables; peas, spinach.
SEX: The males are slightly larger with pointed anal and dorsal fins. The markings may or may not be darker.
B: Keep a pair in their own breeding tank measuring at least 36" (91 cm) with a capacity of 40 gallons (151 L). The water chemistry should be as followS: pH from 7.6-8.0, a water hardness from 10-14 dH, and a water temperature from 79-82F (26-28C). Up to 400 eggs are laid in a cave. The female guards the eggs, while the male guards the territory. The fry hatch after 48 hours are free-swimming about 9-11 days after the spawning. They emerge from the caves and can be fed with Artemia nauplii, Cyclops nauplii and crushed dry foods. The fry are slow-growing and difficult to raise as they are sensitive to water pollutants and changes in water chemistry.
BP: 8. A challenging fish to breed.
R: This fish is sensitive to toxic compounds and should be kept under the regime of very frequent, but small water changes (about 5-10% biweekly).
DC: 6. A sensitive fish whose diet should include live foods.

Otostigma, Tripod Cichlid [Pictures]
Triglachomis otostigma
SYN: Limnochromis otostigma
PD: An elongated fish with characteristic elongated tip on the pectoral fins. The body is brown with a silvery iridescence. The gill cover is marked with a black spot with a small silver crescent to the left. Under the eye may be a fine violet line. The fins are dark gray to black with a fine yellow line between each ray.
SIZE: To 4.5" (12 cm)
SS: None
HAB: Eastern Africa; found living on a mud or sand substrate at depths of 65-164 feet (20-50 m) in Lake Tanganyika
S: bottom, middle
TANK: A tank of 30" (76 cm) with a volume of 20-25 gallons (75-98 L) is adequate. Use a coral sand substrate and leave open swimming areas. The background should be rock structures with caves, over-hangs, and crevices for hiding.
WATER: pH 8.2-9.0 (8.2), 10-20 dH (15), 75-81F (24-27C)
SB: A peaceful fish that does not set-up strong territories. Instead of chasing off other fish who near their area, the Otostigma simply opens its large mouth as a warning to trespassers. The Otostigma can be combined in a Lake Tanganyika community tank.
SC: Lake Tanganyika cichlids, Lake Tanganyika Rainbowfish
FOOD: Live; insect larvae, crustaceans, Tubifex, aquatic insects; chopped meat; pellets.
SEX: Unknown; possibly the fins of male fish are more elongated.
B: The Otostigma is known to be a mouth brooder who cares for the brood a short time after the fry hatch. Otherwise little has been discovered.
BP: 9. Spawning this far have usually been accidental.
R: This species appears to be related to the bottom-dwelling marines fish of the family Triglidae.
DC: 5. A hardy fish who requires live foods.

Blue-eyed Tropheus [Pictures]
Tropheus brichardi
SYN: Mistaken for a morph of Tropheus moorii.
PD: T. brichardi has a rounded head and an under-slung mouth. The color is brown to brown black as are the fins. The body is marked with a white to yellow splotch on the back of the fish. This fish is located in about the middle of the back. Opposite this, but on the belly, is a similar yellow marking. The iris of the eye may develop a blue color in well-maintained water. Other color morphs are usually striped with alternating brown-black and yellow stripes. The caudal fin is fan shaped.
SIZE: To 4.7" (12 cm)
SS: Tropheus duboisi, Tropheus brichardi
HAB: Eastern Africa; found in the rocky regions at depths of 6.5-16 feet (2-5 m) of the northern part of Lake Tanganyika. T. brichardi is found on the southern coast of Burundi.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: A tank measuring at least 48" (122 cm) with capacity of 75 gallons (285 L) is needed for a school of T. brichardi . Follow the suggestions for T. moorii in setting up the tank.
WATER: pH 7.3-9.2 (8.1), 8-22 dH (15), 77-82F (25-28C)
SB: A territorial fish that differs from T. moorii in not forming hierarchies. T. brichardi is often aggressive towards others of its own species although not overly so. T. brichardi is shy and peaceful towards other fish. Keep one male with several females.
SC: Julidochromis, Neolamprologus, Eretmodus, Synodontis, Lamprologus.
FOOD: Live; crustaceans, aquatic insects; vegetables; lettuce, spinach, peas; tablets; flakes. No Tubifex , beef heart, or red mosquito larvae. Only include foods that are high in fiber. Please see T. moorii for other notes.
SEX: Nearly indistinguishable; the genital papilla of the male is pointed, while the female's is rounded.
B: Use water with the suggestions mentioned above. The eggs are deposited in open water and taken into the females mouth. They measure up to 0.3" (0.7 cm) and like T. moorii, are yellow in color. The eggs, numbering 6-12, are incubated for 4-5 weeks. During this time, the female continues to feed. Start feeding with Artemia nauplii, Cyclops nauplii, and dry foods. The young grow quickly.
BP: 7. Breeding is moderately difficult.
R: Offered rarely to the hobby. T. brichardi is sensitive to changes in water chemistry. Several color morphs are known.
DC: 7. A sensitive fish who can be aggressive towards others of its own species. See T. moorii for other notes.

Duboisi [Pictures]
Tropheus duboisi
SYN: None
PD: A steep-forehead marks this species. The body color is slate gray to black with a white bar that runs down the midsection of the body. This marking ends just before reaching the belly. On some variations this stripe may be yellow, wide, or reach the belly. Young are black and spotted with a number of white to blue spots. Many consider the young to be more intriguing than the adults.
SIZE: To 4.7" (12 cm)
SS: Tropheus brichardi, T. moorii
HAB: Eastern Africa. T. duboisi fills a different ecological niche from other Tropheus in Lake Tanganyika; it lives at depths of 10-50 feet (3-15 m) in rocky zones, considerably deeper than T. moori .
S: bottom, middle
TANK: A tank with dimensions of 36" (91 cm) with a volume of 45 gallons (170 L) is sufficient. See suggestions for T. moori in the tank set-up.
WATER: pH 7.3-9.2 (8.1), 8-22 dH (15), 77-82F (25-28C)
SB: Not a schooling fish. T. duboisi is territorial but not as aggressive as T. moorii. This fish is peaceful towards other species. Best kept singly or in pairs. Like other Tropheus, a matriarchal family is formed to care for the young.
SC: Julidochromis, Neolamprologus, Eretmodus, Synodontis, Lamprologus.
FOOD: Algae; live; crustaceans, aquatic insects, black mosquito larvae; vegetables; lettuce, spinach, peas; oatmeal; tablets; flakes. See T. moorii for other recommendations.
SEX: Difficult to distinguish; males have longer pelvic fins and lack the white patches that adult female fish develop.
B: Use water with a pH from 8.5-9.0 and a temperature from 81-84F (27-29C). Similar to T. moori . An open-water spawner, the eggs are allowed to drop into the crevices between rocks before they are picked up by the female. 5-15 eggs are mouthbrooded for 25-30 days and the fry are guarded for a week after emerging. Start feeding with Artemia nauplii, Cyclops nauplii, and dry foods.
BP: 7. Breeding is moderately difficult.
R: Several color morphs are known. Sensitive to changes in water chemistry. See notes under Tropheus moorii .
DC: 7. A sensitive fish that is aggressive towards its own species when not kept in pairs. See T. moorii for other notes.

Moorii, Blunt-headed Cichlid [Pictures]
Tropheus moorii
SYN: Tropheus annectens
PD: A high-backed, laterally compressed cichlid with a fan-shaped caudal fin. The steep forehead gives way to a protruding upper lip and an undershot mouth. The color depends entirely on the geographic population from where the fish is found. The common or "original strain" has a dark olive to black body color with a yellow and/or red band that marks the mid-section of the fish. This band widens at the upper part and lower part of the body. Right above this marking, the section of the dorsal fin is red.
SIZE: To 5.5" (14 cm)
SS: Tropheus duboisi
HAB: Eastern Africa; lives at a depth of 6.5-10 feet (2-3 m) along the rocky shores of Lake Tanganyika.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: A tank measuring at least 48" (122 cm) with capacity of 75 gallons (285 L) is needed for a school of Tropheus . Use a set-up with rock formations that reach the surface of the water. Included should be many hiding places including caves, crevices, over-hangs, and tunnels. Use strong lighting to increase the growth of algae. A floating PVC pipe can serve as a retreat for harassed fish. Over-turned flower pots can also be used for shelter. Robust plants (Java Fern, Anubias, and Vallisneria ) can be used if live plants are desired.
WATER: pH 7.3-9.2 (8.1), 8-22 dH (15), 77-82F (25-28C)
SB: A territorial fish, intolerant of its own species. Experts have conflicting ideas of how this fish should be kept. One successful method is keeping a large number of fish in a large tank. Suggest keeping a group of fifteen to forty with an equal number of females to males. The large number of fish, and equal number of the sexes results in a fairly even distribution of aggressions. Do not introduce new Tropheus into an established school, as hierarchies have formed and new fish will no be accepted. Fish that are removed from the tank may not be reaccepted when returned to the tank. Perhaps the best method is to obtain a group of young fish and raise them to adulthood. Tropheus moorii is usually not aggressive towards fish of other genera, besides being a greedy eater. Not much information has been reported on combining T. moorii with other Tropheus species. However it is known that some morphs of T. moorii are more aggressive than others. Pairs form short-term monogamous bonds and matriarchal families during the spawning season.
SC: Julidochromis, Neolamprologus, Eretmodus, Synodontis, Lamprologus, Altolamprologus, Pseudotropheus .
FOOD: The most important aspect of Tropheus care is feeding. In Lake Tanganyika, T. moorii feeds on algae, containing crustaceans and aquatic insects, much like mbunas of Lake Malawi. In captivity, it may graze on algae and should be fed a high-fiber diet. T. moorii can be fed on such live foods as Brine Shrimp, Mysis, other crustaceans, aquatic insects, and black mosquito larvae. Its diet must include "green foods," including spirulina foods, flakes, lettuce, spinach, tablets, and even oatmeal. Avoid beef heart, Tubifex worms, and red mosquito larvae as these foods will quickly result in intestinal disorders.
SEX: Almost indistinguishable; females may have darker colors and attain a larger size. The genital papilla of the male is slender and comes to a point.
B: Suggest using a Tropheus community tank with water having values between the perimeters mentioned above. The temperature should be 81-86F (27-30C). The fish, once established, may spawn frequently dropping 5-16 eggs in open water. The female quickly takes the eggs into her mouth. After collecting the eggs, she swims to the genital area of the male where the eggs are fertilized. The eggs are large, to 0.3" (0.8 cm) in diameter, and are incubated for a period of 3-4 weeks. The female continues to feed while caring the eggs, which may explain the loss of brood often experienced by some keepers. The fry emerge free-swimming and measuring up to 0.7" (1.8 cm). The female continues her care of the fry for a week further. The young are hardy and fast-growing when fed on a diet of Artemia nauplii, Cyclops nauplii, and fine dry foods.
BP: 7. The real trouble with breeding is keeping the adult Tropheus alive and in good health in order to spawn. Once one brood has come, more are to follow.
R: Tropheus have a highly developed system of mouth-brooding. Only a small number of large-sized eggs are laid. In fertilization, no egg spots are used. The use of egg spots appears to be a primitive fertilization method. When the mother eats, while mouth-brooding the eggs, the fry can also feed. More than 50 color varieties have been reported. Many of these are named for their appearance (Firecracker Moorii, Flame Moori, Rainbow Moori) or their geographical population (Chipimbi, Cape Chaitika, Moba). These are the result of different geographical populations. How these come into existence is actually quite simple. Tropheus live in schools on rocky "reefs." When a group separates from the school, often a result from becoming too large, the group moves to its own area. The Tropheus interbreed and certain color strengths are brought out. This Tropheus group remains isolated from others as Tropheus will not swim in sandy areas. These sandy areas act as barriers between separate populations. Through this method, the different color morphs are formed. Recent studies have found that Tropheus possess twice as much genetic variation as the whole cichlid population of Lake Malawi! ( T. F. H., #444, p. 170). In aquaria Tropheus may become inflicted with an invisible illness which may lead to "bloat" and death. It is still unclear what causes this illness (most likely an unsuitable diet), although furan-based antibiotic seem to do the trick. Tropheus are very sensitive to changes in water chemistry, so perform water changes with care. Be sure to quarantine all new fish for a month before adding them to the tank. Try to obtain tank-bred Tropheus as these are easier to care for than wild caught specimen, and also less expensive.
DC: 7. Tropheus moorii is an aggressive fish that is sensitive to life in captivity. The diet, water chemistry, tank set-up, and behavior all play important roles in keeping Tropheus. Perhaps the most difficult in the care of Tropheus is feeding the proper diet. Once this obstacle, and initial acclimation is overcome, Tropheus are tough fish.

Polli, Poll's Tropheus [Pictures]
Tropheus polli
SYN: None
PD: The forehead is steep and the caudal fin is deeply forked. The body color is slate gray, although a black colored variation with white body stripes is available. The eye is bright turquoise in well-maintained water.
SIZE: To 6" (15 cm)
SS: None
HAB: Eastern Africa; rocky areas at depths of 3-13 feet (1-4 m) near the Bulu Islands and Bulu point, on the northwestern shore of Lake Tanganyika.
S: bottom, middle
TANK: Use a tank with the dimensions of at least 48" (122 cm) with a capacity of 55 gallons (209 L). Arrange as one would for T. moorii.
WATER: pH 7.3-9.2 (8.1), 8-22 dH (15), 77-82F (25-28C)
SB: A highly aggressive fish towards others of its own species. This fish is territorial, although peaceful towards dissimilar species. At this time, it is still unclear as to the nature of the fish, if it is a schooling or loner fish. Pairs from monogamous bonds at spawning times and the mother raises the young.
SC: Julidochromis, Neolamprologus, Eretmodus, Synodontis, Lamprologus.
FOOD: Algae; live; crustaceans, aquatic insects, black mosquito larvae; flakes; tablets; oatmeal; vegetables; lettuce, spinach. See notes under Tropheus moorii.
SEX: Again sexual distinction is difficult, males may have a greater fork in their tail.
B: See recommendations for T. moori.
BP: 7. A moderately difficult fish to breed.
R: At least three color morphs are available. T. polli is easily distinguished from other Tropheus species by its characteristic forked caudal fin. Sensitive to changes in water chemistry. See notes under Tropheus moorii.
DC: 7. Care must be taken in water changes and feeding. See T. moorii for other notes.

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