By Rhett Butler

Rasbora, Harlequin Fish, Red Rasbora
Rasbora heteromorpha
SYN : None
PD : An elongated species with a long caudal peduncle. The body coloration is pinkish silver with a violet iridescence. The belly is more white in color and the fins have a pink to red tinge. On the rear half of the body is a characteristic,black wedge-shape. The area on the caudal peduncle is redder than the rest of the fish. The outer rays of the caudal fin are red.
SIZE : To 1.75" (4.5 cm)
SS :Espes Rasbora ( Rasboraespei ), Hengel's or Slender Rasbora ( Rasbora hengeli )
HAB : Still and slow-moving brooks and swamps, in shallow areas. Southeast Asia; Malay Peninsula, Sumatra,Thailand.
S : middle, top
TANK : A tank measuring 20" (51 cm) with a volume of 10 gallons (38 L). Use a dark gravel substrate and a partial cover of floating plants. Use dense planting along the edges and sides of the tank. Provide hiding places in these thickets of plants, and in wood and roots.
WATER : pH 5-7.5 (6.0), dH 1-10 dH (4), 72-79°F (22-26°C)
SB : A peaceful, schooling fish that should be kept in groups of six or more. Combine this species with other small to medium sized, schooling fish.
SC : Rasboras, Coolie Loaches, Corydoras, Loricarids, Apistogramma , tetras, hatchetfish, Colisa.
FOOD : Live; insects, insect larvae , crustaceans, Tubifex ; flakes.
SEX : The wedge-shape of males is sharper and more pointed, while the female's is less clearly defined. Males are also more slender.
B : Use water with a pH from 5.3-5.7, a water hardness from 1-3 dH, and a temperature from 79-82°F (26-28°C). Plant the tank heavily with broad leafed plants (Amazon Swords, Cryptocoryne ). The water level should be lowered to 5-8" (13-20 cm) and the water can be peat filtered. Conditions the pair separately for a period of one to two weeks prior to the intended spawning time. Spawning may be triggered by the rising of the sun. The spawning process takes two to three hours, during which as many as 250 eggs are deposited on the underside of leaves. The parents should be removed just after spawning. Place dark paper on four sides of the tank so the eggs will not be as susceptible to fungus. The eggs hatch after 24 hours and are free-swimming 3-4 days later. Start feeding with liquid foods, Infusoria, and egg yolk. After 2-3 days more, the fry can be fed with Artemia nauplii. The young very sensitive to new water,so small water changes should be made several times weekly. The fry grow quickly.
BP : 7. Breeding under the right conditions is moderately difficult, although the fry are difficult to rear.
R : When attempting to spawn this species, only females of about 10-20 months should be used as often older females will not spawn.
DC : 3. A robust species recommended for community tanks.

Dwarf Rasbora, Pygmy Rasbora, Spotted Rasbora [
Rasbora maculata
SYN : None, although this species mistaken for a juvenile R. kalochroma .
PD : Among the smallest of aquarium species, the Dwarf Rasbora is an elongated fish. The back is brownish red, while the body is bright brick red. The belly is yellowish-silver and there are various black spots on the body. These usually do not number more than five. The dorsal and anal fins are black and the other fins have red at their bases.
SIZE : To 1" (2.5 cm) max.
SS : Clown Rasbora ( R. kalochroma ) is similar in coloration, although much larger. The Ocellated Dwarf Rasbora ( R. urophthalma ) at 1.5" (4 cm) is only slightly larger.
HAB : Along overgrown riverbanks of still to slow-moving flood plain rivers and swamps. Southeast Asia; Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Singapore , Sumatra.
S : middle
TANK : A tank measuring 16" (41 cm) with a capacity of 5 gallons (19 L) works well. The tank should be heavily planted including a cover of floating plants to diffuse the lighting. The substrate should be dark gravel.
WATER : pH 5-6.8 (6.2), dH 0-8 dH (3), 75-81°F (24-27°C)
SB : A peaceful schooling fish recommended for community tank having other small species.
SC : Rasboras, Coolie Loaches, Corydoras, Loricarids, Apistogramma , tetras, hatchetfish, Colisa.
FOOD : Tiny live; insect larvae , Drosophila , other small insects, Artemia ;fine grade flakes.
SEX : Females are plumper and less colorful.
B : This species can be bred in even a 3 gallon fish tank. Use thickets of small, fine-leafed plants and coarse gravel or marbles as a substrate. The water should be peat-filtered with a pH from 5.7-6.2, a water hardness from 0-3 dH, and a water temperature from 81-84°F (27-29°C). Condition the pair separately for one to two weeks prior to the spawning. Only 40-50 eggs are laid among plants. The parents should be removed before they can consume their own eggs. The eggs hatch after 24-36 hours and the fry are free-swimming three to four days later. Start feeding with Infusoria and liquid foods. The fry are very small and difficult see. Often, in a well-planted, sparsely populated tank, some fry will survive to maturity.
BP : 6. Spawning comes easily under the right conditions.
R : This species in sensitive to water changes, medications, and water pollutants. Itwas first imported into Europe in 1905.
DC : 4. This somewhat sensitive species is an excellent fish for a small species or community tank.

Red-line Rasbora, Red-stripe Rasbora [
Rasbora pauciperforata
SYN : Rasbora leptosoma
PD : An elongated fish with a forked tail. The back is olive brown and the body is brownish-gray. The belly is white. The fins are all smoky-gray. Under favorable conditions, fish develop a bright red stripe that runs from the tip of he snout, through the upper part of the iris, and to the caudal fin.
SIZE : 2.8" (7 cm)
SS : Glowlight Tetra ( H. erythrozonus )
HAB : Found in still to slow-moving, blackwater streams and creeks that have overhanging and overgrown vegetation. South east Asia; Malaysia , Sumatra.
S : top
TANK : A tank measuring 28" (71 cm) with a capacity of 20-25 gallons (75-98 gallons) is adequate. A cover of floating plants along with a dark substrate are recommended. Plant the tank heavily, but leave some open swimming areas at the middle and top levels. Peat filtration is suggested.
WATER : pH 5-7 (6.2), 0-6 dH (2), 73-79°F (23-26°C)
SB : A peaceful, schooling fish of the upper and middle swimming levels. Combine with similarly sized, active schooling fishes.
SC : Colisa,Corydoras, Apistogramma , Loricarids, Loaches, Danios, hatchetfish, Rasboras
FOOD : Live; Drosophila , insects, Tubifex , crustaceans, insect larvae ; flakes.
SEX : Females are plumper especially around spawning times.
B : Use water with a pH from 5.5-6.0, a water hardness from 2-3 dH, and a temperature from 79-84°F (26-29°C). Plant the tank heavily with fine leafed and grassy plants. Pairs are very selective about their partners. Try keeping a large number of fish in a school, and watch for similar pairs. The eggs are scattered among these plants and hatch after 24-28 hours. The fry are free-swimming 3-5 days later and can be fed with Infusoria, roftiers, and liquid foods. The young are sensitive to changes in water changes.
BP : 8. Breeding is very difficult. Some success has been reported with keeping a school of 8-12 fish in a large, well-planted tank containing only this species. A few eggs often remain undiscovered and the fry survive to maturity.
R : The Red-line Rasbora has a brighter red stripe than the Glowlight Tetra. Recommend frequent partial water changes as this species is sensitive to water pollutants.
DC : 4. A somewhat sensitive species that is an excellent community companion.

Scissortail, Scissor tailed Rasbora, Three-lined Rasbora [
Rasbora trilineata
SYN : Rasbora calliura, R. stigmatura
PD : This elongated species has a forked caudal fin marked with characteristic black and white spots on the upper and lower lobes of the caudal fin. The back is silvery, olive-green and the rest of the body is silvery, occasionally with a green iridescence. A slender, gold lateral line runs from the gills cover to the caudal fin. Paralleling this, just below, is a faint black stripe.
SIZE : To 6" (15 cm) in nature, although not usually larger than 4" (10 cm) in captivity.
SS : None
HAB : Sill and slow-moving rivers and lakes. Southeast Asia; Borneo, Malay Peninsula,Sumatra
S : middle, top
TANK : A tank measuring 36" (91 cm) with a volume of 30 gallons (114 L) is sufficient, although full-grown fish should be moved to a tank of at least 48" (122 cm) long. Leave plenty of open swimming areas and plant the edges with plants. Use a dark substrate.
WATER : pH 5.8-8 (6.8), 4-18 dH (8), 64-77°F (18-25°C)
SB : A lively, schooling species that is a fine candidate for a community tank.
SC : Danios, Barbs, Gouramis, Loaches, Corydoras, Loricarids, tetras, Apistogramma , Acaras
FOOD : Live; insects, Tubifex , insect larvae ; flakes
SEX : Females are plumper.
B : Use a long, shallow tank with a water level not exceeding 8" (20 cm) deep. The water should have values of a pH from 6.0-6.5, a water hardness from 4-8 dH, and a temperature from 77-82°F(25-28°C). Use a substrate of dark, coarse gravel and plant the tank heavily. The parent should be removed just after spawning is completed. As many as 1000 eggs are scattered among plants. The eggs hatch after 24-28 hours and the fry are free-swimming 3-5 days later. Start feeding with Artemia nauplii. The eggs and the fry are sensitive to Infusoria as the Infusoria have a tendency to be physically harmful. Thus it is important not to feed the young with Infusoria.
BP : 7. Breeding this Rasbora is fairly difficult.
R : This fish's name is from the scissor-like movement of the outer rays of the caudal fin.
DC : 2. This hardy species is recommended for a community tank.