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KILLIFISH



SUB-FAMILY: APLOCHEILINAE
 
Lyretail, Orange Lyretail, Cape Lopez Lyretail, Lyre-tailed Panchax [
Aphyosemion australe
SYN : Haplochiluscalliurus, H. calliurus var. australe, Panchax australe, P. polychromus
PD : An elongated fish with elaborate fins.  The tips of the anal, caudal, and dorsal fins are elongated and pointed. The outer rays of the caudal fin form a 'lyre-tail' shape.  The background body coloration of males is brownish-yellow to brownish orange. The body is marked with numerous red spots.  The fins are orange with a broad yellow and red border. The tips of the fins are white. The females are brown in color with a scattering of red spots.
SIZE : To 2.4" (6 cm)
SS : None
HAB : Inhabits shallow shore areas of slow-flowing rivers above a leafy substrate.  Western Africa, the rainforests of Gabon.
S : middle, top
TANK : A tank measuring 16" (41 cm) with a capacity of 5.5 gallons (21 L) can be used fora pair. Use wood, roots, and Java Moss to serve as hiding places.  Use a dark substrate, preferably peat moss. The tank should be densely planted and a cover of floating plants is suggested.  Use a tight-fitting cover as this species may leap. This species prefers peat filtration.
WATER : pH 5.5-7 (6.2), 2-10 dH (4), 70-75°F (21-24°C)
SB : A fine community fish to combine with other small, peaceful species.  Keep this species in pairs.   
SC : Aphyosemion, hatchetfish, pencilfish, Corydoras , Loricarids Trichopsis , Pangio , Puntius titteya , small African characins,and some Mormyrids.
FOOD : Live; flying insects, insect larvae , Brine Shrimp , other crustaceans, Tubifex worms; flakes.
SEX : Males are more colorful, have more elongated fins, and are slightly larger.
B : A breeding tank measuring 12" (30 cm) with a capacity of 2.4 gallons (9 L) is sufficient.  The water should have a pH from 6.2-6.8, a water hardness from 2-6 dH, and a temperature from 73 to 77°F (23-25°C).  Keep one female with two or three females. Use a spawning mop or fine leafed planted along with a peat moss substrate,if possible. The eggs are hung from plants around the tank.  Each day, 10-20 eggs are produced, for a period of 10-12 days. The peat (containing eggs) should be removed and placed in a separate rearing tank.  Replace the peat moss in the spawning tank. The eggs hatch 10-12 days and once their eggs sacs are consumed, they can be fed on roftiers and small nauplii.
BP : 5. An easily bred fish.
R : A bright gold-orange morph is available.  Wild stock are brownish in color.  Some aquariasts recommend a 0.5% addition of salt. This can be accomplished by adding 4 TSP. of salt for every 10 gallons of water (5 g/10 L). A long-lived Killifish (3 years).  A. australe belongs to the large sub-genus Mesoaphyosemion , which includes a number of Aphyosemion species of Cameroon , Gabon, and the Congo Republic.
DC : 4. A good fish for a beginner wanting to keep Killifish.  Frequent partial water changes are recommended.
 
Two Stripe Killifish
Aphyosemion bivittatum
SYN : Fundulopanchaxbivittatum, Fundulu­s bivittatus
PD : A long-bodied fish. Males have elaborate anal and dorsal fins which are tall and pointed.  The body color of males range depending on the population. Commonly, the back is golden-brown, while the flanks are bluish, and the belly is gold. The body is marked with two rows of red spots.  The rear body parts are often light turquoise with a light blue iridescence. The anal and pelvic fins are yellow to pastel green with a red edging.  The caudal fin is green with red rows of spots and has bright yellow tips.  The dorsal fins is marked as is the caudal fin. 
SIZE : To 2" (5 cm)
SS : Other Aphyosemion species.
HAB : Western Africa; southern Nigeria and Cameroon
S : bottom, middle
TANK : A 20" (51 cm) or 10 gallon (38 L) tank is sufficient for a pair.  The tank should be dimly lit, with a cover of floating plants. Plants the tank heavily along the sides and rear, and leave an open swimming area.
WATER : pH 5.8-7 (6.5), 1-8 dH (3), 73-79°F (23-26°C)
SB : A peaceful, but active species that can be kept in pairs. 
SC : As for A. gardneri .
FOOD : Live; insects, insect larvae , worms, crustaceans; may accept flakes.
SEX : Males are more colorful with elongated fin extensions. 
B : As for A. volcanum, except use warmer water (75-81°F)
BP : 6. Breeding is not difficult.
R :  A. bivittatum is a member of the sub-genus Chromaphyosemion , which consists of some eight described species S : A. bivittatum, A. bitaeniatum,A. loennbergi, A. lugens, A. poliaki, A. riggenbachi, A. splendopleure, and A. volcanum.   Among these eight species, over 170 unique populations are represented.  A.bivittatum itself has numerous color forms.
DC : 5. This beautiful species is not especially difficult as long as given live foods and favorable water conditions.
 
Plumed Lyretail, Togo Lyretail
Aphyosemion filamentosum
SYN : Aphyosemionruwenzori, Fundulopanchax filamentosus
PD : The fins of males are more developed and elongated.  The fins of females are rounded.  The background body coloration is blue-violet to green-blue.  The body, dorsal, and caudal fins are marked with numerous red spots. The lower lobe of the caudal fin has a red stripe, as does the anal fin.  These fins also have red edgings. 
SIZE : To 2.3" (6 cm)
SS : Other Aphyosemion species
HAB : Found in stagnate pools and ponds.  Western Africa; southwestern Nigeria , western Cameroon, Togo .
S : middle
TANK : A tank measuring 20" (51 cm) with a capacity of 10 gallons (38 L) is sufficient.  Follow suggestions for A. gardneri .
WATER : pH 5.5-7.5 (6.5), 2-10 dH (4), 70-73°F (21-23°C)
SB : A lively, peaceful species that should be kept in pairs or one male with two females. 
SC : See A. australe .
FOOD : Live; flying insects, insect larvae , Brine Shrimp , other crustaceans, Tubifex worms; flakes.
SEX : Males are distinctly more colorful and larger.  The fins are more elaborate on the male.
B : Use water with a pH from 5.5-6.0, a water hardness from 2-5 dH, and a temperature from 73-77°F (23-25°C). Plant the tank heavily with fine-leafed plants.  Use subdued lighting and a peat substrate.  The eggs are laid on or sometimes in the peat substrate. Remove the peat three to four weeks after the spawning and store it in a dark, moist area with a temperature in the upper 70's for 6-9 weeks.  After this time, place the eggs in a tank with soft water (1-5 dH). Start feeding the fry with roftiers and Infusoria.  
BP : 7. Breeding is moderately difficult.
R : This species is an annual, and as a result, is relatively short-lived.  Several color/geographical races are known. Sexually mature at four months.
DC : 6. This Killifish is somewhat sensitive to unfavorable water conditions.
 
Steel-blue Aphyosemion
Aphyosemion gardneri*
SYN : Fundulopanchaxgardneri, Fundulus gardneri
PD : An elongated fish with an up-turned mouth.  The color an pattern ranges greatly depending on the geographical population. Two morphs are commonly available in the hobby.  The first has a bright green body with a bright bluish iridescence. The body is marked with irregular, red spots.  The fins are similar in color to the body and the anal, caudal, and dorsal fins have single red, lateral stripes followed by a broad yellow edging.  The second variant has a virtually identical color pattern, except the back coloration is pale blue-violet.  Females of most variants are gray-brown with scattered red spots.
SIZE : To 3" (8 cm)
SS : Other Aphyosemion species
HAB : Western Africa; small ponds and pools in the savannas of Nigeria and Cameroon .
S : all
TANK : A tank measuring 20" (51 cm) with a capacity of 10 gallons (38 L) is sufficient. The tank should be well-planted with a partial cover of floating plants.  The substrate should be dark, preferably peat moss. Leave an open swimming area, but also provide some shelter in the form of bog wood and rocks.  The tank should have a tight-fitting cover.
WATER : pH 6-7.5 (6.5), 2-10 dH (4), 73-79°F (23-26°C)
SB : Males are aggressive toward one another.  Keep one male with two or three females. 
SC : Other robust Aphyosemion species, Corydoras, Trichopsis, possibly tetras.
FOOD : Live; flying insects, insect larvae , Brine Shrimp , other crustaceans, Tubifex worms; flakes.
SEX : Males are far more colorful.
B : Raise the water temperature to 75-81°F (24-27°C).  The eggs are scattered among fine leafed plants, or on the substrate. These hatch after a period of 14-21 days.  The eggs can be removed and placed in peat for a period of three to four weeks. Start feeding the fry with Artemia nauplii.
BP : 5. A fairly easily bred fish.
R : Many regional races and color variants are available, and as a result, several sub-species have been described. There is some conflicting reports as to whether this species is an annual or non-annual.  This confusion may be warranted as possibly some races may be annuals.   *Some ichthyologists suggest that Fundulopanchax gardneri is the proper scientific name of this species.
DC : 4. A robust Killifish.
 
Golden Pheasant, Blue Gularis
Aphyosemion sjoestedti*
SYN : Aphyosemion coeruleum, Fundulopanchax sjoestedti, Fundulus caeruleum, F. sjoestedti, Nothobranchus sjoestedti.
PD : An elongated species with a fan-shaped caudal fin. The color depends entirely on the population. Two variants are most often seen; a green type and a golden morph.  The green variant has a background of green with over-laying red spots and stripes. The lower parts are blue and the belly is white.  The fins are green with red markings and have a green edging. Females are reddish-brown. The golden race has an shiny olive-brown back, and green-gold to blue-gold flanks. The front part of the body is marked with dark red spots, while the rear part has several dark red,transverse stripes. The fins of this morph are elaborately elongated and green-gold in color.  Red splotches mark the fins.  Female are brown-gold.
SIZE : To 4" (10 cm)
SS : Other Aphyosemion species.
HAB : Ponds and marshy pools in coastal rainforest regions.  West Africa; Benin , Cameroon , Ghana,Ivory Coast, Nigeria , Togo .
S : bottom, middle
TANK : A tank measuring 30" (76 cm) with a capacity of 20-25 gallons (75-98 L) is sufficient for a male with two or three females. Provide many retreats with rocks, wood, roots, and thickets of plants.  Use a dark substrate, preferably peat and use subdued lighting.  Keep the tank well-covered.
WATER : pH 6-7.5 (6.5), 2-12 dH (4), 70-77°F (21-25°C)
SB : A lively species that is predatory towards small fish.  Keep one male with several females. 
SC : Hatchetfish, Corydoras , Loricarids, Pangio , Congo Tetras, some Mormyrids, Pelvicachromis, Synodontis.
FOOD : Live; insects, insect larvae , Brine Shrimp , other crustaceans, fish fry; flakes are occasionally accepted.
SEX : Males are more colorful and larger than females. 
B : Use a peat moss substrate or a container containing peat moss (See breeding of annual in the introduction of Killifish) as this species buries its eggs.  Remove the peat from the tank after spawning and allow it to dry for a day. Place the peat, which should be always kept moist, in a plastic bag,and store it at a temperature from 64-75°F (18-24°C).  Be sure to air out the bag periodically.  After four to eight weeks, the moss can be placed in a tank containing soft water.  After the fry emerge from the moss,they can be fed on Artemia nauplii
BP : 6. This species is fairly easy to breed.
R : As a result of this species' wide distribution, several regional/coloration varieties are known. This species is an 'annual' Killifish. *Some ichthyologists suggest that Fundulopanchax sjoestedti is the correct name of this species.
DC : 5. This beautiful Killifish species tends to be aggressive towards others of its own species.  The Golden Pheasant requires live foods in its diet.
 
 
Red-lined Killifish, Red Striped Killifish
Aphyosemion striatum
SYN : Haplochilus striatus
PD : An elongated fish with an up-turned mouth.  The back is brownish orange.  The flanks have a multitude of colors becoming darker towards the belly.  The coloring starts out as orange becoming yellow, then green, then blue, and finally violet near the belly.   The body is marked with five,red, lateral dotted line. The dorsal fin is green with two red stripes.  The caudal fin is many colors like the body, and is marked with red spots and stripes. The lower edge of the caudal, anal, and pectoral fins are yellow.  The anal and pectoral fins are blue in color with red markings.
SIZE : To 2" (5 cm)
SS : Several other Aphyosemion species.
HAB : Inhabits small, shallow streams.  West Africa; Northern Gabon.
S : bottom, middle
TANK : a tank measuring 16" (40 cm) with a volume of 5 gallons (19 L) is sufficient for a pair. The tank should be heavily planted with a cover of floating plants.  Use a dark substrate and provide hiding places with wood and roots. Cover the tank well.
WATER : pH 5.5-7 (6.0), 4-14 dH (8), 68-73°F (20-23°C).  A  small, 0.5% addition of salt is suggested to help prevent infections. This can be accomplished by adding 4 TSP. of salt for every 10 gallons (5 g of salt/10L)
SB : A small, peaceful species that can be kept in pairs. 
SC : Other Aphyosemion species, tetras of the upper swimming levels, hatchetfish, pencilfish, lamp-eyes that can tolerate lower water temperatures, Corydoras , Loricarids, Trichopsis , Pangio , Puntiustitteya .
FOOD : Live; flying insects- Drosophila , insect larvae , Brine Shrimp , other crustaceans, Tubifex worms; flakes.
SEX : Males are more colorful.
B : This species can be bred in small tanks planted with large amounts of Java Moss.  A pair in top condition may spawn 20-30 eggs daily for a period of three to four weeks.  The eggs adhere to the tank bottom.  Remove the eggs after a day's spawning. The eggs take 10-14 days to hatch and the fry can be raised on small Brine Shrimp nauplii.
BP : 6. Breeding is moderately difficult.
R : At higher temperatures, this species will lose some colors and live for shorter periods. 
DC : 5. A moderately sensitive Killifish.
 
Volcano Killifish
Aphyosemion volcanum
SYN : None
PD : A long-bodied fish. Males have elaborate anal and dorsal fins which are tall and pointed.  The body color of males range depending on the population. Commonly, the back is violet-brown, while the flanks are bright yellow or gold. The body may be marked with red spots as may be the fins.  The rear body parts often have a violet iridescence. The anal fin is yellow to green with a bright yellow tip.  The caudal fin is red and green and has bright yellow tips. The anal and pectoral fins are yellow with red edges. 
SIZE : To 2" (5 cm)
SS : Other fish of the sub-genus Chromaphyosemion .
HAB : West Africa; inhabits the ponds and streams around Mt. Cameroon near the western coast of Cameroon .
S : All
TANK : A tank measuring 20" (51 cm) with a capacity of 10 gallons (38 L) is sufficient.  Use a dark substrate with subdued lighting. Plant the tank heavily and provide hiding places among roots and wood. 
WATER : pH 5.5-7 (6.3), 1-10 dH (2), 77-81°F (25-27°C)
SB : Males are aggressive towards one another, otherwise this species is peaceful. 
SC : Aphyosemion , Danios , hatchetfish, pencilfish, Corydoras , Loricarids Trichopsis , Pangio , Puntius titteya , small African characins,and some Mormyrids.
FOOD : Live; flying insects, insect larvae , Brine Shrimp , other crustaceans, Tubifex worms;flakes.
SEX : Males have longer fins and are more colorful.
B : Use a spawning tank heavy infested with Java Moss and a substrate of peat moss.  The moss should be removed weekly and stored in a plastic bag in a dark area with a temperature from 64-75°F (18-24°C).  After two or three weeks the eggs can be placed in their own tank having soft water.  Start feeding with Artemia nauplii.  The eggs may have a better hatching rate if cooler water is used a first.
BP : 6. Breeding is fairly easy.
R : Several different color morphs are known including those from Meme and Bolifumba.  Perform frequent partial water changes. 
DC : 5. This Killifish is somewhat sensitive to water conditions.
 
Striped Panchax, Lineatus Panchax, Sparkling Panchax
Aplocheilus lineatus 
SYN : Aplocheilus affinis, A. vittatus, Haplochilus lineatus, Panchax lineatus, P. lineatum
PD : The body is elongated and the snout is up-turned.  The back is slightly arched and the fins are rounded. The back is olive brown to bronze-brown, and the flanks are bronze to dark forest green in color. Alternating scales are yellow-gold in color giving the fish an attractive appearance.  These yellow scales continues ant the anal, caudal, and dorsal fins, which are bronze in color.  The jaw and frontal belly regions are yellowish white and the iris of the eye may be green. Nine dark, transverse stripes mark the body of juveniles and mature females. At least two variants are common to the hobby: one with a fully red tail, and the other with  the majority of the caudal fin is red, and the outer lobes are white.  The anal and dorsal fins are yellow.
SIZE : To 4.7" (12 cm)
SS : Other Aplocheilus species.
HAB : In still and slow moving water with heavy vegetation in coastal regions of Southern India.
S : top
TANK : A tank measuring 30" (76 cm) with a capacity of 20-25 gallons (75-98 L) is recommended.  Use a cover of floating plants to diffuse the lighting. Use a tight-fitting cover as this species is a jumper.  Provide hiding places with roots, rocks, and wood.
WATER : pH 6-7.5 (6.9), dH 5-20 (8), 75-81°F (24-27°C)
SB : A predatory species that can be combined with medium to large sized fishes.  Males are aggressive towards one another, as are females, and should not be kept together in tanks less than 36"(91 cm) in length. It is possible to keep several pairs in one tank, as the aggression tends to be evenly spread. Rosler states in Tropical Fish Hobbyist (#460 on p. 110-14) that in his experiences with A. lineatus , he has combined small fish such as tetras in the same tank.  He suggests that Panchax only attack sick or weak fish in the aquarium, and healthy fish are safe.
SC : Aplocheilus species, small catfishes, peaceful cichlids
FOOD : Live; fish fry, crustaceans, insect larvae , flying and aquatic insects, Tubifex ;flakes, pellets, tablets.
SEX : Males are larger and more colorful, with elongated fins and slimmer, fainter transverse bands. In females, these bands are more distinct and broader. 
B : A small 5.5 gallon (21 L) tank is sufficient.  The pair should be conditioned separately for a period of two to three weeks. Use acidic water with a pH from 6-6.7 and a temperature from 77-82°F(25-28°C). Furnish the tank with dense bunches of fine-leafed plants or Java Moss, and a cover of floating plants. The large eggs are deposited among  surface and bunches of plants.  Remove the eggs and place them into a shallow tank. The eggs should hatch after 11-14 days, and the young can be fed on powdered dry foods and Artemia nauplii. The fry develop at different rates, so they must be frequently sorted according to size.
BP : 6. This Panchax is fairly easy to breed.
R : This species, like all Panchax, belongs to the sub-family Rivulinae.  Several different color forms are reported to exist. 
DC : 4. A robust Panchax that can be combined with larger fish.
 
Blue Panchax
Aplocheilus panchax
SYN : Esoxpanchax, Haplochilus panchax, Panchax melanopterus, P. panchax
PD : An elongated fish with a pointed snout and an up-turned mouth.  The color depends on the age, sex, and race of the fish. Generally the Blue Panchax has a dark brown-copper back with a gray-yellow body color.  The body is marked with eight lateral lines of red spots. The rear flanks-from the mid-section and back-have a brilliant blue iridescence, while the frontal parts have a green iridescence.  The dorsal fin is located far back on the body and has a large, black spot at its base, and a black edge.  The middle parts may be pale blue or bright red(depending on the variant). The caudal fin is pale yellow with pale blue outer lobes, and a fine black edging.  The anal fin has red spots, with a base color of green-yellow.  The outer edge is bright red. 
SIZE : To 3.2" (8 cm)
SS : Other Aplocheilus species.
HAB : Inhabits stagnate ponds, fields, and canals containing large amounts of vegetation.  Southeast Asia; Burma, India, Malay Peninsula, Thailand.
S : top
TANK : A tank measuring 24" (61 cm) with a capacity of 10-20 gallons (38-75 L) is sufficient.  Cover the tank well. Follow recommendations for A. lineatus .
WATER : pH 6-7.5 (6.8), 3-15 dH (7), 68-77°F (20-25°C)
SB : A lively predator of the upper water levels.  This species is peaceful towards similarly and larger sized fishes. 
SC : Aplocheilus species, small catfishes, peaceful cichlids
FOOD : Live; fish fry, crustaceans, insect larvae , flying and aquatic insects, Tubifex ;flakes, pellets, tablets.
SEX : Difficult to distinguish; Males are darker and grayish-yellow in color. 
B : Similar to A. lineatus , although lower temperatures are acceptable.  A healthy pair may lay 130-300 eggs daily for a period of several weeks.  Since the Blue Panchax spawns among fine-leafed plants and Java Moss, it is easy to remove the spawning substrate containing eggs, and replace it.  The eggs hatch after 11-15 days, and the fry can be fed nauplii and powdered dry foods after their eggs sacs have been consumed. Frequently sort the fry by size to prevent cannibalism.
BP : 5. An easily bred toothcarp.
R : This lively, colorful species has been kept in the hobby since 1899.  Panchax fill an important ecological role in nature by feeding on ailing fish. Several different variations are known, including those selectively bred by hobbyists.
DC : 3. A robust species that is the most commonly kept Killifish out of Southeast Asia.
 
Red-chinned Panchax, Black-lipped Panchax
Epiplatys dageti
SYN : Aplocheilus dageti
PD : An elongated species with a pointed, upturned snout characteristic to surface-feeding Panchax species. The eyes are large. The back is dark to light brown, and the flanks are lighter brown in color. The flanks may have a dark green to violet iridescence.  The under-parts are yellowish brown.  The body is marked with five black transverse bars. Four are located on the rear half of the body, while the final is located near the base of the pectoral fin. A black marking runs along the mouth, while another runs through the eye.  The fins are dark green-yellow. On one variation the edges of the dorsal and caudal fins are white, while the anal finis marked with a broad black edging. On other variants, all the fins are rimmed with black.  Several different color races are known.
SIZE : To 2.8" (7 cm)
SS : Graham's Panchax ( E. grahami )
HAB : Small creeks and streams in Western Africa; Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana
S : top
TANK : A tank measuring 24" (61 cm) with a volume of 10-20 gallons (38-75 L) is sufficient.  Arrange the tank in dark colors with plants along the sides and rear.  Leave open swimming areas in the center of the tank and scatter wood, roots, and rocks for hiding places.  A cover of floating plants along with a tight-fitting cover is recommended.
WATER : pH 6-7 (6.5), dH 2-10 dH (6), 70-75°F (21-24°C)
SB : This active predator is peaceful towards similarly- and larger-sized fish.  Males are territorial and aggressive especially around spawning times. 
SC : Similarly-sized fishes of the lower swimming levels including dwarf cichlids, catfish,large tetras, barbs, gouramis, and other Killifish.
FOOD : Live; flying insects, fish fry, insect larvae , small crustaceans; flakes.
SEX : Males are more variable in color, have longer fins, and are distinctly larger.  Mature females may lose their stripping pattern.
B : A 5.5 gallon (21 L) tank is sufficient for spawning purposes.  Furnish the tank with an abundance of fine-leafed plants including surface types. Raise the water temperature to 75-79°F (24-26°C).  One or more males can be combined with one female. The eggs (as many as 300) are laid among plants or on the substrate.  The parents will eat the eggs, so the plants should be removed and replaced immediately following the spawning.  The fish will continue to spawn for a period of three to five weeks.  The eggs should be transferred to a tank containing soft water. They will hatch after 8-11 days at a temperature of 77°F (25°C).  Start feeding with paramecia, powdered foods, and micro foods after the eggs sacs have been depleted.  The fry are sensitive to infusoria. 
BP : 4. An easily bred, prolific species.
R : This species is often labeled " E. chevalieri ," which is a separate and distinct species. Two sub-species have been described; E. dageti dageti , and the more common, E. dageti monroviae
DC : 4. A fairly robust species that prefers old water.
 
Tanganyika Lamp-eye
Lamprichthys tanganicanus
SYN : Haplochilus tanganicanus, Lamprichthys curtianalis
PD : An elongated fish with a slightly arched back.  The back of male fish is dark olive-yellow,while the flanks are lighter. The body is covered with bright sky-blue spots.  The fins are yellow with numerous bright yellow spots. The frontal part of the caudal fin has blue spots, although the rest is colored like the other fins.  All the fins are marked with a yellow fringe. Females are less colorful, with silver-blue spots.
SIZE : Males to 6" (15 cm), females to 4.7" (12 cm)
SS : None
HAB : East Africa; inhabits the rocky shore areas of Lake Tanganyika.
S : middle, top
TANK : A tank measuring 48" (122 cm) with a capacity of 50 gallons (190 L) is sufficient for adults. It is very important to leave large open swimming areas.  Set up the tank as for Lake Tanganyika Cichlids.
WATER : pH 7.5-8.8 (7.8), 10-25 dH (12), 75-79°F (24-26°C)
SB : An active shoaling fish that should be kept in groups of at least six.  A dominant male, distinguishable by elaborate fins, will establish a large territory among rocks.  Works well in a Lake Tanganyika community tank.
SC : Altolamprologus, Julidochromis, Lamprologus, Neolamprologus , and Synodontis species.
FOOD : Live; insect larvae , flying insects, crustaceans, Tubifex ; flakes; pellets
SEX : Males are larger, more colorful, and have more elaborate fins.
B : Use a large tank with many rock structures.  The dominant male will pair with a female.  The spawning is a slow process and the eggs are laid in crevices.  Remove the rocks from the tank as the parents will eat the eggs. The eggs, not usually numbering more than 100, hatch after 11-14 days.  Start feeding the fry with nauplii and powdered dry foods. The young are slow-growing.
BP : 7. A difficult species to breed.
R : Make frequent partial water changes.
DC : 6. This somewhat delicate makes a fine addition to a Lake Tanganyika community tank.
 
Gunther's Nothobranch
Nothobranchus guentheri
SYN : Adiniopsguentheri, Fundulus guentheri
PD : The body is elongated and the dorsal fin is located far back on the body.  The fins are rounded and the mouth is upturned. There are several different color variants.  In one color variant, the male has a bluish head with a yellow throat and snout. The iris of the eye is blue.  The body scales are light blue, surrounded by red. These markings produce a netted appearance.  The caudal fin is deep red with a black outer edge. The other fins are yellow. Another variant has more red on the body and the fins.  Females are duller in color with darker blue hues. 
SIZE : To 2" (5 cm)              
SS : Other Nothobranchus species.
HAB : Inhabits muddy ponds and pools that dry up during the dry months of the year.  East Africa; Zanzibar, Mozambique , Kenya, and Tanzania
S : bottom, middle
TANK : A tank measuring 24" (61 cm) with a capacity of 10-20 gallons (38-75 L) is sufficient.  Follow suggestions for N. rachovii .
WATER : pH 6-7 (6.5), dH 1-10 (3), 66-75°F (19-24°C)
SB : A somewhat aggressive fish that can be kept in small groups in a well-planted tank.  Males may be territorial especially around spawning times.
SC : Other Nothobranchus species, tetras, hatchetfish, danios, Aphyosemion, Corydoras, Brachydanio, Loricarids, pencilfish.
FOOD : Live; insects, insect larvae , small crustaceans, Tubifex ; flakes
SEX : Males are more colorful and larger.
B : Follow suggestions for N. rachovii .
BP : 6. Breeding is moderately difficult.
R : Different color variants are known.  An annual species.  There is an excess of 40 Nothobranchus species.
DC : 5. A sensitive species that requires regular water changes.
 
Rachov's Nothobranch, Rainbow Nothobranch
Nothobranchus rachovii
SYN : Adiniops rachovii
PD : An elongated fish with a stocky body.  The dorsal fin is located far back on the body. The mouth is upturned and the eye is fairly large.  Males are distinctly more colorful.  The"red" variant has a bright red head with some turquoise highlights.  The scales of the flanks are turquoise,and outlined in red. The caudal fin has alternating turquoise and red stripes and markings.  The rear parts of this fin are red,while its edge is black. The pectoral fin is light blue while the anal and dorsal fins have a turquoise base with several random red markings. Females tend to be brownish-gray with a greenish iridescence.  The iris of the eye is amber-yellow.
SIZE : To 2.4" (6 cm)
SS : Other Nothobranchus species
HAB : Inhabits seasonal floodplains, ponds, and streams which may completely dry up at some parts of the year. East Africa; Mozambique , South Africa (Kruger National Park).
S : bottom, middle
TANK : A 24" (60 cm), 10-15 gallon (38-55 L) tank is sufficient.  The tank should be arranged in dark colors with plants along the sides and back of the tank.  A substrate of peat moss is preferred, although other dark materials will do. Provide retreats with wood and rocks.  Shallow tanks are preferred. 
WATER : pH 5.8-7.2 (6.5), 2-10 dH (4), 70-77°F (21-25°C)
SB : Males are territorial and aggressive toward one another.  This Killifish is best kept in a species tank, although it is not usually aggressive towards different species.
SC : Tetras, hatchetfish, danios, Aphyosemion, Corydoras, Brachydanio, Loricarids, pencilfish.
FOOD : Live; Tubifex , insect larvae , crustaceans; flakes.  Provide a varying diet.
SEX : Males are more colorful and often larger.
B : A small tank furnished with heavy planting and a soft substrate-preferably peat moss-is recommended for those wishing to spawn this species.  Eggs are deposited and buried in the substrate.  The peat can be removed and placed in a plastic bag. The moss should be kept moist and at a temperature from 64-72°F (18-22°C).  After two to five months, the peat moss can be placed in a tank containing soft water (1-2 dH).  At first the fry are sensitive to disease,although they quickly become more robust. Feed with Artemia nauplii and powdered foods.  
BP : 6. Breeding is not particularly difficult.
R : Like other Nothobranchus species, N. rachovii is sexually mature after a short time-12 to 15 weeks.  Several different color variants exist. In some parts of South Africa, this species has been deemed endangered.  A short-lived annual species.
DC : 6. A sensitive species that requires frequent partial water changes. 
 
Playfair's Panchax
Pachypanchax playfairi
SYN : Aplocheilus playfairi, Haplochilus playfairi, Panchax playfairi
PD : An elongated fish with a flattened head and rounded fins.  The dorsal fin is located far back on the body. Males are more colorful than females. The back is brownish-gold and the belly is yellowish.  The flanks are yellow with a greenish-yellow iridescence in reflected light. The flanks are also marked with rows of red spots.  The fins have similar coloring, although the anal and caudal fins have a black edging. Females are dull brown in color with a black spot by the base of the dorsal fin..  
SIZE : To 4" (10 cm)
SS : None
HAB : This species is found in standings waters, occasionally brackish.  Inhabits the islands along the eastern coast of Africa; Madagascar , Seychelles, Zanzibar
S : bottom, middle
TANK : A tank measuring 24" (60 cm) with a capacity of 10-15 gallons (38-56 L) is sufficient.  The tank should be arranged in dark colors with some floating plants to serve as a refuge for fry.  Plant the tank heavily and provide some hiding places among wood or rocks. Cover the tank well.
WATER : pH 6.5-7.0 (6.7), 5-15 dH (9), 73-77°F (23-25°C)
SB : A mild-tempered fish that will eat smaller fish.  This species is frequently quarrelsome among others of its own species. Males are often territorial. 
SC : Small catfish, similarly-sized Panchax species, West African Dwarf Cichlids, hatchetfish.
FOOD : Live; fry, Tubifex , insect larvae , crustaceans; flakes
SEX : Males are more colorful with black ridges along the anal and dorsal fins.
B : A 5 gallons tank is adequate for breeding, although this species may frequently spawn in a densely-planted, lowly populated tank. The breeding tank should include dense vegetation.  Use slightly warmer water-75 to 79°F(24-26°C). Place one male with two females.  Spawning takes place among plants, and lasts for a period of 8-14 days. As many as 200 eggs are produced.  The parents are notorious egg-eaters, so the eggs should be separated. The eggs hatch after 10-12 days and can be raised on Artemia nauplii and powdered foods. 
BP : 5. Spawning is fairly easy.
R : Around spawning times, the scales of male fish may stand out from the body as if the fish is suffering from dropsy.  Sometimes the scales are even shed from the body.
DC : 3. A hardy species that should not be kept with small fish.
 
Clown Killie, Rocket Panchax
Pseudepiplatys annulatus
SYN : Aplocheilus annulatus, Epiplatys annulatus, Haplochilus annulatus
PD : An elongated species with a flattened head and a straight back profile.  The body coloration is yellow-beige with four broad, black-brown transverse bands.  The pelvic, pectoral, and anal fins are black-brown with red edgings. The dorsal fin is also brown-black, although it has a blue fringe.  The caudal peduncle is red, while the rest of this fin are laterally striped red and turquoise.  The outer parts are turquoise.  The iris of the eye is blue.
SIZE : To 1.5" (4 cm)
SS : None
HAB : West Africa; inhabits small rainforest and savanna streams in Guinea, Sierra Leone,and Liberia.
S : top
TANK : A 20" (50 cm), 10 gallon (38 L) tank is sufficient.  The rear of the tank should be densely planted and a partial cover of floating plants is suggested.  A peat substrate is preferred, although not required. 
WATER : pH 5-7 (6.0), 2-12 dH (6), 75-79°F (24-26°C)
SB : A peaceful surface-dwelling species that can be combined with other small fish. 
SC : Small catfish, tetras, Rivulus species
FOOD : Live; Artemia,Cyclops, Drosophila , Daphnia , Tubifex ; Flakes
SEX : Males are larger with more colorful fins. 
B : A small tank is recommended for breeding.  Use water with a pH from 5-5.5, dH 1-3,79-82°F (26-28°C).  P. annulatus is an "egg-hanger" which attaches its eggs to fine leafed plants and the roots of floating plants. The tiny eggs are susceptible bacterial infections and hatch after 10-14. The fry are very small and difficult to rear.  They grow slowly even when fed with micro-foods and Infusoria.   
BP : 8. Breeding is very difficult, perhaps imitating the rainy season is the best method to induce spawning.
R : The coloration of the fins varies depending on the geographical race.  This species is rare in the wild.
DC : 7. A delicate species that requires well-maintained water with frequent partial water changes.
 
Red Aphyosemion
Roloffia occidentalis*
SYN : Aphyosemion occidentale, A. occidentalis 
PD : An elongated species with and up-turned mouth.  The back of males is dark orange-red.  The lips and cheeks are blue, as are the lower parts of the flanks.  The upper parts of the flanks a golden yellow and magenta. The fins are multicolored with a sky blue outline.  This description is only fit for one color morph, although several variations exist. Females of this morph has an orange-red back, and pinkish lower parts.
SIZE : To 3.5" (9 cm)
SS : Aphyosemion species
HAB : Inhabits shallow areas of seasonal creeks, pools, and streams of the savannas and forests of West Africa; Sierra Leone and Liberia
S : bottom, middle
TANK : A tank measuring 24" (61 cm) with a capacity of 10-15 gallons (38-57 L) is suggested.  Provide hiding places among wood, rocks, and dense planting. The tank should be dark and arranged in dark colors.  A cover of floating plants is desirable,as is a substrate of peat moss. Use a tight-fitting cover as this species is a jumper.  The Red Aphyosemion prefers shallow tanks.
WATER : pH 6.2-7.0 (6.5), 3-12 dH (5), 68-75°F (20-24°C)
SB : Males are territorial and aggressive towards one another, and may harass females.  Therefore,it is recommended to keep one male and several females to a tank.  
SC : This species is best kept in a species tank, although it can be kept in a tank with robust Killifish, tetras, dwarf cichlids, and small catfish.
FOOD : Live; insect larvae , crustaceans, insects, Tubifex ; flakes.
SEX : Males are more colorful.
B : This species can be bred in a 5 gallon (20 L) tank with a substrate of peat moss.  The water values should be as follow S : a pH from 6-6.5, a water hardness from 1-5 dH, and a temperature from 73-77°F(23-25°F). The eggs are buried in the peat.  Remove the peat and store it in a moist area for two to four months. After this period of time, place the peat in a tank containing soft water.  The eggs should hatch after several days, and the fry can be raised on micro-foods and powdered foods. 
BP : 7. Breeding is fairly difficult.
R : This species is an annual, thus is short-lived.  To prolong the life of R. occidentalis , keep the water temperature cooler than that of other tropicals (68-72°F).  R. occidentalis is sometimes known as the Golden Pheasant.  Some suggest that the name Fundulopanchax occidentalis is the correct name for this species.
DC : 6. This temperamental species is susceptible to disease.

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