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OTHERS

By Rhett Butler


TETRAODONTIDAE FAMILY
The Tetraodontidae or Pufferfish family is distributed world-wide in tropical regions of marine, brackish, and freshwater habitats, although most occur in sea water.  Pufferfish are so named, for their ability to inflate with air and water to a size too large to be swallowed.  This action is not the Puffer's only mechanism of defense. Many species are covered with small spines, and most species are poisonous. The mouth is beak-like for crushing the shells of mollusks. The eyes are large and highly mobile.  Pufferfish exist in a range of sizes and colors.     
 

Figure-eight Puffer, Circle-eight Puffer

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Tetraodon biocellatus
SYN : Crayracion biocellus, Tetrodon biocellatus, Tetraodon biocellus
PD : A stocky fish with a broad forehead and protruding eyes.  The dorsal and anal fins are rounded and located opposite each other. The caudal fin is fan-shaped.  The skin is leathery and covered with small spines.  When inflated these spines stick out; rendering the fish un-swallowable. The colors vary based on the age and the habitat of the specimen.  The belly is white in color or dark gray while the upper parts are light to dark gray.  The upper parts are covered in various green to yellow patterns, ranging from lines to circles, dots to stripes.  Each fish has its own unique pattern.  The fins are gray. The iris ranges from yellow to blue in color.
SIZE : To 8" (20 cm), though usually not more than around 4" (10 cm)
SS : Other Tetraodon species.
HAB : In coastal fresh and brackish waters in Southeast Asia; Burma , Thailand , Indonesia ,and Sumatra.
S: All
TANK : A 32" (80 cm) or 30 gallon (114 L) tank is adequate for fish up to 5" (13 cm)in length. The substrate should be fine gravel or, preferably sand.  The tank should be well-planted along the sides and rear and an open swimming area should be left.   The plants used must be tough to withstand this Puffer's pugnacious behavior, and must be able to tolerate brackish water.  Use rocks and wood to create refuges.
SB : Young individuals are usually peaceful. Older specimens are territorial and aggressive. All ages are aggressive towards their own species. Best kept alone, but if kept in a community tank, combine with hardy fish of similar sizes. Will attack plants and may nip fins of other fish.
SC : Tetraodon, Monodactylus, Scatophagus, Arius, Datnioides
WATER : pH 6.8-8 (7.3), 8-20 dH (10), 75-84°F (24-30°C).  A 1 to 1.5% addition of salt is suggested.  Add 7.5-11 TSP. of salt to every 10 gallons (10-15 g/10 L)
FOOD : Live; snails, Tubifex , crustaceans, insect larvae , earthworms;occasionally tablets
SEX: Females are said to be slightly larger when mature.
B : Unsuccessful in captivity, probably similar to T. nigroviridis
BP : 10. There are no reports of successful aquarium spawns.
REMARKS: This species has lived up to 10 years in captivity.  This species can not live in pure saltwater for long periods.
DC : 6. This aggressive species requires live foods, brackish water, and frequent partial water changes.
 
Red-Bellied Puffer
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Tetraodon lorteti
SYN : Carinotetraodon lorteti, C. somphongsi, Tetraodon somphongsi
PD : This species has a typical puffer shape except for the think caudal peduncle and the large caudal fin. The coloration of this species varies, as this fish is able to undergo a color change depending on its surroundings. The color becomes darker in darker surroundings and lighter in lighter surroundings.  Females generally have a brown-gray coloration with wide beige and small dark brown markings.  The belly is white with small dark spots.  The iris of the eye is blood red. Males have a dark brown back with two yellow markings, both running from the top of the eye.  The flanks are lighter brown with a faint, yellow stripe running from the mouth to the top of the caudal peduncle.  The belly is white-yellow and bright red (especially around spawning times.  The anal and dorsal fins are small and orange-red in color. The base of the caudal fin may be faint red and the fin may be edged in white.  The iris of the eye is also red.  
SIZE : To 2.7" (8 cm)
SS : None
HAB : Asia; in standing fresh water ponds in Thailand and Eastern India
S: bottom, middle
TANK : A 28" (71 cm) or 20-25 gallon (76-95 L) tank is sufficient.  Provide plenty of hiding places among rocks, wood, and heavily planted areas. Leave open swimming areas and use a fine gravel or sand substrate.  The plants in the tank should be tough-leafed.
WATER : pH 6.2-7.5 (7.1), 4-12 dH (7), 75-82°F (24-28°C)
SB : This territorial species will establish an area to guard against other fish.  This species is best kept as a single pair in a species tank.
SC : Barbus, Botia, Danios, Gouramis.
FOOD : Live; snails, Tubifex , crustaceans, insect larvae , earthworms;occasionally tablets
SEX: The male is more colorful and abstract in coloration than the female, which has a gray belly and is spotted.
B : Difficult, but has been accomplished on occasion.  Use water with the following values:pH of 6.3-6.5, water hardness of 5, and a temperature of 79-81°F (26-27°C).  Furnish the tank with Java Moss and plenty of retreats. Accounts ranging from 300-1500 eggs have been reported, although the average brood is not known. eggs are laid in the moss after an active courtship.  The male guards the fry, which hatch in 30 hours.  Remove the parents. The fry are very difficult to raise because they do not take most foods. Suggest newly Cyclops nauplii.
BP : 8. Breeding is difficult.  
REMARKS: This Pufferfish does not require the addition of salt.
DC : 5. This aggressive species requires live foods and frequent partial water changes.
 

Green Pufferfish, Spotted Green Puffer, Spotted River Puffer, Round Spotted Puffer

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Tetraodon nigroviridis
SYN : Arothrondorso vittatus, A. simulans, Carinotetraodon fluviatilis, Crayracion fluviatilis, Dichotomycter fluviatilis, Tetraodon fluviatilis, Tetrodon fluviatilis, T. nigroviridis, T. simulans  
PD : A stocky fish with a broad forehead and protruding eyes.  The dorsal and anal fins are rounded and located opposite each other. The tail is fan-shaped. The skin is leathery and covered with small spines.  When inflated these spines stick out; rendering the fish un-swallowable.  The colors vary based on the age and the habitat of the specimen. The belly is white in color while the upper parts are yellow to green.  The upper parts are spotted with black to brown spots. These spots have a small yellow ring surrounding each one. The fins are yellow but transparent.  The iris ranges from yellow to blue in color.
SIZE : To 8" (20 cm)
SS : Other Tetraodon species.
HAB : In coastal fresh and brackish waters in Asia and Southeast Asia; India , Sri Lanka,Burma (Myanmar), Thailand , Indonesia , and the Philippines.
S: All
TANK : A 32" (80 cm) or 30 gallon (114 L)  tank is sufficient.  Follow suggestions for T. biocellus.
WATER : pH 7.0-8.2 (7.4), 10-20 dH (12), 75-84°F (24-29°C).  A 1-2% addition of salt is suggested.  Add 7.5-15 TSP. of salt to every 10 gallons (10-20 g/10 L).
SB : Young individuals are usually peaceful.  Older specimens are territorial and aggressive. All ages are aggressive towards their own, and similar species.  Best kept alone, but can be combined in a community tank, with hardy, brackish fish of similar sizes.  This Puffer will attack plants and may nip the fins of other fish. Males may fight to the death, so monitor fights closely.
SC : Arius, Monodactylus, Scatophagus, Toxotes, Datnioides
FOOD : Live; snails, Tubifex , crustaceans, insect larvae , earthworms;occasionally tablets
SEX: Unknown
B : Difficult, has only been accomplished in brackish water. Spawning takes place after courtship near the bottom. The pale, clear eggs are laid on rocks or on the substrate.  The male guards these.  The fry hatch in 6-7 days and are taken to a small pit on the bottom, where the male continues to guard them.  The fry do not take most foods and are consequently very difficult to raise. Suggest newly hatched Brine Shrimp , Cyclops nauplii, or mosquito larvae.
BP : 9. Breeding is very difficult and is unusual.
REMARKS: Does best in brackish water and can live up to 10 years in captivity.
DC : 6. This aggressive brackish water species requires live foods.
 
Palembang Puffer
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Tetraodon steindachneri
SYN : Crayracion palembangensis, Tetraodon palembangensis, Tetrodon palembangensis
PD : A stocky fish with a broad forehead and protruding eyes.  The dorsal and anal fins are rounded and located opposite each other. The caudal is fan-shaped. The skin is leathery and covered with small spines.  When inflated these spines stick out;rendering the fish un-swallowable. The colors vary based on the age and the habitat of the specimen.  The belly is white in color while the upper parts are light to dark gray.  The upper parts are covered in various green to yellow patterns, ranging from lines to circles, dots to stripes.  Each fish has its own unique pattern.  The fins are gray. The iris ranges from yellow to blue in color.
SIZE : To 4" (10 cm)
SS : Other Tetraodon species .
HAB : In coastal fresh waters-small streams and drainage ditches-in Southeast Asia; Burma (Myanmar), Thailand , Indonesia , Sumatra
S: All
TANK : A 30" (76 cm) or 20-25 gallon (76-114 L) tank is sufficient.  Follow suggestions for T. biocellus.
WATER : pH 6.7-7.7 (7.0), 5-15 dH (10), 73-82°F (23-28°C)
SB : This aggressive species is intolerant of other fish.  It may fight with other Puffers and nip at the fins of dissimilar species. Combine with sturdy companions.
SC : Botia , Barbs, Danios, Gouramis, Asian Catfish, Synodontis.
FOOD : Live; snails, Tubifex , crustaceans, insect larvae , earthworms;occasionally tablets
SEX: Females larger when mature
B : Unsuccessful in captivity, probably similar to T. nigroviridis
BP : 10. This species has not been bred in captivity
REMARKS: This is a freshwater species that should not be kept in brackish or salt water.

DC : 6.  This aggressive species requires frequent partial water changes and live foods.